Al-Madd Al-Leen


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Lean meat, lean on me, leniency…. Which “leen” is it? Let’s find out.

Al-Madd Al-Leen[1]: easy/eased prolongation only occurs when the reciter is stopping recitation after the word containing the madd, eg. for a breath, or at the end of an ayah, etc.

Let’s look at why this is so.

Al-madd al-leen occurs when a waaw saakinah ( وْ ) or a yaa saakinah ( يْ ) are preceded by a letter with the fat-h diacritic ( ــَـ).

To be able to sound al-madd al-leen, the yaa or waaw must be “stretched” and not simply read with a sukoon.

The length of elongation is a choice made by the reader of either:

2 counts; or

4 counts; or

6 counts.

But not all three.

Or two.

Or a mix.

Conditions of al-madd al-leen:

-it’s letters are waaw saakinah and yaa saakinah

-these letters must be preceded by a letter that has a fat-ha

-to sound this madd, the reciter must stop after saying the word containing the madd (otherwise the madd is void).

Contrary to Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad, this madd becomes void if you are not going to stop at the end of the word. An example of this is as follows:

Al-bayta mathaabatan

Here we can see that the conditions of al-madd al-leen are fulfiled in that the harf madd yaa has been preceded by a fat-ha. But we do not stretch this yaa for 2, 4, or 6 counts. Why? Because we continued onto the next word, mathaabatan.

It is situations like these that al-madd al-leen becomes completely void.

An example of when you do sound al-madd al-leen:

Ahla-l-bayti

Ahla-l-lbayyt

Visible after the word bayt, is the “jeem” character noting to the reciter it is preferable to stop reading. In this situation, we stretch the yaa in bayt for 2, 4 or 6 counts and stop for a breath. More examples:

Khawwf

Al-sayyf

A side note to readers who are more knowledgeable in Tajweed: al-madd al-leen relies on al-madd al-‘aarid lil sukoon. If you are going to stop after a word, you sound the ‘aarid madd. This is the same case with al-madd al-leen only it’s special case has been noted down as an entirely different tajweed rule.

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, sixth madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-BadalAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.


[1] Al-Madd Al-Leen: المد اللين

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Al-Qalqalah

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

This-is-is    post-ost-ost    will-ill-ill    be-be-be    about-out-out    Qalqalah-ah-ah…

But what is Qalqalah? First, be rest assured I won’t type echos for the rest of the post. Because it’d get a tad annoying for both author and reader. The word itself sounds repetitive and as interesting as it’s Tajweed rule.

Qalqalah: sound articulation and echo. In essence the word means shaking/disturbance. In Tajweed, it means to disturb the letter that has sukoon, i.e. that is saakin, but without any corresponding movement of the mouth and jaw that is associated with voweled letters (i.e. letters that have fat-ha, dammah, or kasra). Qalqalah “shakes” to “echo” the letter without taking up the preceding or succeeding letter’s diacritic.

To explain:

There are five letters in the Arabic alphabet that apply to Qalqalah. These five letters are:

ق          ط          ب          ج          د

daal      jeem       baa       tah      qaaf

To easily remember these letters, remember the phrase they make up, (قطب جد).

Simply, Qalqalah is echoing the above five letters when they are in state of sukoon, i.e.

قْ     طْ     بْ     جْ     دْ

To feel the importance of Qalqalah, try saying (أط), how about (أق) you’ll find one of two things happen. Either the back end of your tongue gets stuck and it’s difficult to loosen it and breathe, or your tongue will naturally slip and the back of your mouth is open again. It is this “slipping” that Qalqalah is based on. Disturbing the letter without moving your jaw or mouth. Try it for the rest of the letters, (أد) and (أج) and (أب). Imagine trying to say the word,

أبْناء

If there was no “slipping”/”shaking”/”echoing” of the letter baa (بْ) then how hard would it be to say the noon (ن) straight away with your lips still pressed together? Doing Qalqalah will cause your lips to “slip” a bit i.e. open up a tiny bit without adding a diacritic to the baa, to make it easy to pronounce the noon. On a final note, as one Imam puts it,

The qalqalah is necessary for these letters because they have the attributes of jahr (stoppage of the flow of breath) and shiddah (stoppage of the flow of sound), so without qalqalah, there would be no sound!

But as the blog has not covered attributes of letters yet, this might just sound all too surreal for some.

There are three types of Qalqalah:

Qalqalah Kubra (Strong Echo): occurs at the end of an ayah.

Qalqalah Wusta (Medium Echo): occurs at the end of a word in the middle of an ayah.

Qalqalah Sughra (Subtle Echo): occurs in the middle of a word whether at the beginning, middle or end of an ayah.

Examples of Qalqalah:

Kubra (strong):

_______Kasab __________________ Al-falaq

________Muheet _________________Masad _________________ Al-ma’aarij


You may notice the the last letters that require Qalqalah don’t actually have sukoon drawn above them! Diacritics have been put in place for readers who want to continue reading without a pause through to the next ayah. However, stopping at the end of every ayah is preferred and so in these such circumstances you must do a strong Qalqalah.

Wusta (middle):

qad aflaha ___________najid lahu

 

Here the sukoon is clearly marked on the Qalqalah letters.

V.I.Note: if you run out of breath and wish to stop in the middle of an ayah, and you stop at a word that has a qalqalah letter on the end, you must, must, must read it as a qalqalah kubra! For example, if I wanted to stop at the word qad in the above example, the daal must be echoed strongly. Then if I were to continue reading by repeating the word and continuing, I do a qalqalah wusta.

Here’s the example again:

[reciting] … [out of breath] … [stopping at word qad] … [doing a strong echo on the daal] … [takes breath] … [wants to continue] …

[start at the word qad and reads: qad aflaha, doing a qalqalah wusta on the daal].

Simple!

Sughra (subtle):

khalaqna _ _______________tat-heeran _____________________ abnaa’akum__

Similarly the sukoon is clearly marked on the Qalqalah letters.

Resources Link:

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 9]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Makhaarij Al-Huroof [dot points 5, 7, 12, 15]

 


I suggest visiting Quranic Audio to listen to Qalqalah.

Select your favourite reciter and listen to Surat Al-Falaq [113]/Al-Masad [111]/Al-Qiyaamah [75] for Qalqalah kubra.

Qalqalah wusta and sughra occur throughout the entire Quran. I don’t think there is any particular one you really should listen to. Surat Al-Qalam [68] has a fair few Qalqalah sughra. I also suggest Surat Al-Muzzamil [73] for a combination of wusta and sughra.

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule two

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The following is rule two of four for the Noon Al-Saakinah/Tanween.

We all know the children’s game, hide and seek. Here, the Noon Al-Saakinah must be hidden [i.e. not pronounced clearly]. Read on.

Hide And Seek

Rule Two: Ikhfaa — Al-sitr (where the Noon/Tanween is not pronounced clearly, i.e. is hidden).

The first rule listed six letters that follow the noon al-saakinah. In that case, it must be pronounced clearly. Of the remaining letters in the Arabic alphabet, the second rule, ikhfaa applies.

The letters which are covered in rules three and four, are the exception to this rule.

These letters are:

ب    و    م    ن    ي    ر    ل

laam    raa    yaa   noon    meem    waa    baa

When one of the remaining letters follows a noon saakinah or tanween, ikhfaa must be done. This is when the noon saakinah or tanween is hidden in the nose. Here, the mouth is to be shaped in a manner such that it is “prepared” for the next letter. For example, if the next letter is a taa with a dhammah then the mouth is prepared to say this by changing it into a small “o” shape, and the tongue positions itself in the right place within the mouth[2]. This can occur across two words or be contained in one.

Ikhfaa must be sounded for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of the second rule are as follow:

example one: min qabl –   منْ قبلِ

example two: kitaabun kareem –   كِتابٌ كريم

example three: antum –   أنْتم

It is not necessary that you learn all these letters. It is however advised that you learn the 6 ith-haar, and 7 exception, letters and so when reading, just do a quick check to see if the letter is not one of the 6 ith-haar letters, or the exception letters above, then do ikhfaa. This takes a while to get used to, and soon you’ll forget you even have to do a check because you internalise it.

Besides, it’d be almost the impossible to try and bring out an “nn” sound from your nasal passage when needing to shape your mouth for a “h” sound for haa, or an “a” sound for alif.

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gateway to Arabic, page 48]

– Makhaarij Al-Huroof

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haarAl-Noon Al-Saakinah: idghaam –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab


[1] – More about the Arabic letters can be found here: http://www.meem.freeuk.com/ scroll down to the “ABJAD TABLE” and select a letter.
[2] – Refer to the document Makhaarij Al-Huroof under the resources page.

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule one

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

As per people, letters are different. You find some people are quiet, other are loud. But regardless of this, there are places when even the loud ones must be quiet! Take for example, the library or art gallery.

Quiet Zone

In Tajweed there are rules regarding the silent noon[1]. This is known as “Al-Noon Al-Saakinah” in Arabic. The rules regarding the silent noon also apply to tanween [2].

Rule One: Ith-haar Al-Bayan (where the noon/tanween is pronounced clearly).

It’s pronounced clearly only when the following is true:

The noon has a sukoon[3] on it (نْ) and one of the following letters come after it (whether in the same word or following one)[4]:

alif, haa, khaa, ayn, ghayn, haa

هـ     غ      ع       خ       ح      أ

Note this also applies for the Tanween.

Examples of this are as follow:

example one: hakeemin hameedحكيمٍ حميد

example two: an aqeemoo أنْ أقيموا

Please note that I have put up very beneficial documents under the “resources” page. I hope these are of benefit.

Resources Link:

Tanween [Gateway to Arabic: page 40]

[Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: pages 11 – 14]

Sukoon [Gateway to Arabic: page 48]

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaaAl-Noon Al-Saakinah: idghaam –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab


[1]noon: the 25th Arabic letter, that makes a “n” sound, such as in the words, “n”ear, “n”or, A”nn”. The letter in arabic is written as ن

An interesting website all about the letter noon is here: http://www.meem.freeuk.com/Noon.html

[2]The tanween is an “n” sound added to the end of the word in certain circumstances, usually it functions just like the “a” and “an” in English, indicating an indefinite article. The word tanween, usually translated as “nunation”, means “to ‘n'”, or “‘n’ing”, making an “n” sound. There are three types of tanween:

1- fat-ha tanween
2 – kasra tanween
3 – damma tanween

fat-ha tanween: The fat-ha tanween is pronounced “an”, as in “animal”.

kasra tanween: The kasra tanween is pronouced “in”, as in “in”, “tin”, “fin”, etc. Some native Arabic speakers might indicate a kasra tanween with an “en”, thinking that “e” sounds like the Arabic “yaa” letter. This is a mistake that stems from not knowing how native English speakers pronounce the “e” sound.

damma tanween: The dhamma tanween is pronounced as a short “oo” followed by an “n”. This sounds like the short “un” in “uno”, not like the long “oon” in “soon”.

tanween at the end of a sentence: If the tanween is the last thing in the sentence, it’s not pronounced. In the case of a fat-ha tanween, the alif is pronounced as a long vowel.

[3] – More about sukoon can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_diacritics#Suk.C5.ABn

[4] – More about these letters can be found here: http://www.meem.freeuk.com/ scroll down to the “ABJAD TABLE” and select one of the abovementioned letters to learn more about it.