Al-Idghaam

Merging two similar things is something we do all the time. We do this when we categorise objects with similar characteristics (using the dominant characteristic as the go-to label) because it’s easier for us in the end to pull out what we need.  Similarly, it’s easier for the tongue to merge two letters, and sound out the one with the more dominant characteristic. This ruling is called idghaam.

merged fruit

 

Idghaam Al-‘aam: the common/general idghaam is to sound the first of two letters as the second – sounding the two letters as one letter with a shaddah on it. This common idghaam has two branches: kabeer (large) and sagheer (small).

Al-Idghaam Al-kabeer: occurs when a  voweled letter precedes another voweled letter such that they become one letter with a shaddah on it.

Al-Idghaam Al-sagheer: occurs when a saakin letter precedes a voweled letter, such that they become one letter with a shaddah on it. Al-idghaam al-sagheer has three categories, these are

Mutamaathil – Mutajaanis – Mutaqaarib

We will study these in greater detail. First let’s look at Al-idghaam al-kabeer.

Al-idghaam al-kabeer occurs only when two of the same letters meet within a word – both letters are voweled, and therefore must be said as one letter with a shaddah on it.

Examples of this idghaam are as follows:

ta'mannaa

la ta’mannaa – originally ( تأمنُنَا )

ma makannee

ma makannee – originally ( مكنَنِي )

ta'muroonnee

ta’muroonnee – originally ( تأمرونَنِي )

Let’s note the first example also involves a tajweed rule, Ishmaam. I haven’t covered this yet, and will do soon, insha Allah. What we should focus on now though, is merging the two letters, sounding a shaddah, and by principle, a ghunnah.

Al-idghaam al-sagheer happens when a voweled letter follows a saakin letter. This idghaam is under three categories. These categories define when an idghaam sagheer occurs. They are:

Mutamaathil: when the letters being merged come from the same makhraj (point of articulation), and have the same sifah (characteristic). Examples:

ithaa tala'at tazaawaru

Ithaa tala‘at tazaawaru

ith-thahaba

Ith-thahaba

ithab-bikitaabee

Ith-hab bikitaabee

wa qad dakhalu

Wa qad dakhaloo
yudrikkum

Yudrikkum

qul laa

Qul laa

falaa yusrif fil qatl

Falaa yusrif fil-qatl

jaa'atkum maw'ithatun

Jaa’akum maw’ithatunlan-nasbiraLan nasbira

'afaw-wa-qaalu

‘Afaw wa qaaloo

Note: the last example happens on a consonant waaw. If the first word ends in a waaw or yaa’ maddeeyah, then this ruling does not apply, and a shaddah must not be sounded on the second waaw/yaa.

Mutaqaarib: when the letters being merged come from two makhaarij – close in proximity, and have different (but similar) sifaat. Examples:

The letter qaaf and kaaf

nakhlukkumread: nakhlukkum

The letter laam and raa’

wa qul rabbiread: wa qurrabbi

The letter noon with the letters waaw, yaa’, raa’, meem, laam ( و يرمل from the noon saakinah ruling)

min yawmihimmiyyawmihim

Mutajaanis: when the letters being merged come from the same makhraj, but have different sifaat. This occurs for the nat‘eeyah, lathaweeyah and shafaweeyah letters.

The nat‘eeyah letters:

– merging happens to the taa’ ت and taa’ ط and vice versa

waddat taa'ifatunwaddat taa’ifatun (read: ودطّائفة )

farrattumfarrattum (read: فرطتم )

– merging happens to the taa’ ت and daal د and vice versa

athqalat da'awaaathqalad-da’awaa (read: أثقلدَّعَوَا )

qad tabayyana

qat-tabayyana (read: قتَّبَيَّنَ )

Note, the first example has a little ط in it. This is because the tongue should be pushed up completely against the hard palate as though you are going to pronounce the taa’ – however it should not be sounded.

The lathaweeyah letters:

– merging happens to the thaa’ ث and thaal ذ

yalhath thaalika

yalhath-thaalika (read: يلهذّلك )

– merging happens to the thaal ذ and thaa’ ظ

ith thalamooIth-thalamoo (read: إظَّلموا )

The shafaweeyah letters:

– merging happens to the baa’ ب and meem م

irkab ma'anaa

Irkamma‘anaa (read: اركمَّعنا )

This wraps it up for the idghaam ruling. Keep in mind that there is idghaam for the noon and meem saakinah rules. And idghaam kaamel and naaqis for the noon saakinah rulings in particular.

Resources link:

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

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Levels of Tafkheem: Pt 2

As with all personalities, letters can sometimes be strong and buff, and sometimes silken soft. Let’s find out what agitates these letters, and what keeps them as sweet as buttercups…

In the previous post, we studied letters that are always mufakham (always said with tafkheem). This post hones in on the letters which are sometimes mufakham, and sometimes muraqqaq (not said with tafkheem).

These letters are four in total, the are

ا      ل      ر     غنة

ghunnah     raa’     laam     alif

As the rules may get lengthy, I will only look at the letters laam, alif and ghunnah in this post.

The Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Laam

The only time the letter ‘laam’ is mufakham is in lafthul jalaalah, i.e. the name of Allah – referring to the word itself: “Allah”. This occurs when the lafthul jalaalah is preceded by a fat-ha or dammah, or when you are starting recitation with it; such as in the examples:

Allahu-samad

Radiya-llahu

Wa litukaburu-llaha

Notice: the fat-ha from the “a” sound starting the word Allah in the first example, is what makes the laam mufakhamah. This also happens but from the fat-hfrom the word radiya in the second example. As for the third example, the dammah comes from the word litukabbiroo… the waaw madeeyah is dropped (see why here), so the dammah before it becomes the acting diacritic, hence making the laam in lafthul jalaalah mufakhamah.

However, when lafthul jalaalah is preceded by a kasrah, it is said with tarqeeq, examples of this are:

Lillahil-mashriqu

Wa man yu’min billahi

Man yattaqillaha

Qulilaahumma

In all other cases, the laam is said with tarqeeq, whether it has sukoon, fat-ha, dammah, or kasrah. Note from the third example above, “Allahumma” is just another form for the lafthul jalaalah, and so this rule still applies.

The Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Alif

The letter Alif that is being spoken about here, is specifically the Alif madeeyah. It’s rule is simple. Alif is mufakham when it follows a mufakham letter; and it is muraqaq when it follows a muraqaq letter. This means, when it follows any one of the 7 istilaa’ letters, alif is mufakham, when it follows the laam mufakhamah in lafhul jalaalah, the alif is said with tafkheem. Similarly, when it follows a laam or raa’ mufhakhamah (keep in mind that raa’ may be said with tafkheem sometimes – next post insha Allah), the alif is also said with tafkeem. Examples of this are,

Al-Daaleen

Al-Thaaneena

Qaala

Radiya-llahu

khaa'ifeena

Khaa’ifeena

raaji'oon

Raajioona

In all other cases, the alif madeeyah is said with tarqeeq.

The Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of the Ghunnah

The ghunnah, although not a letter itself, is a very important characteristic that completes the noon and meem sound – especially evident when they are saakin. As part of the rules of noon saakinah, when the letters not listed in ith-haar, idghaam or iqlaab follow a noon saakinah, ikhfaa’ is made (ikhfaa’ post here). As the reciter makes ikhfaa’ a ghunnah is sounded. This ghunnah can be mufakham or muraqaq.

It is mufakham when these five letters follow a noon saakinah:

ص    ض    ط    ظ    ق

qaaf      thaa’      taa’      daad      saad

What this means, is that the deep tongue is raised slightly higher (towards the roof of the mouth) while the ghunnah passes through the nasal passage, producing a heavier sounding ghunnah.

Baghtatan Qaaloo

Mandood

Min teen

Yunsaroon

At all other times, the ghunnah is said with tarqeeq. This beautiful sound should be soft, adding a light tone to the recitation.

Insha Allah next post I’ll focus on the rules of tafkheem and tarqeeq for the letter Raa’. I promise once you get that one down pat, it should be easy cruising for tafkheem and tarqeeq.

Resources Link:

– Sifaatul Huroof – Jadwal (Table of the Characteristics of the Letters)

– Sifaatul Huroof – Jadwal – by Sifah

– Sifaatul Aaridah – Tafkheem

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Levels of Tafkheem: Pt 1

Sometimes we can forget the numbers and fatten up…. not the waistline, I mean the seven letters of istilaa’… and the only way to do that is by using some tafkheem thickshakes… they’re deliciously guilt free!

In continuation from the previous posts about the characteristics of the letters, tafkheem is a sifah ‘aaridah (redundant characteristic).

 

Tafkheem ( تفخيم ) means ‘fatness’ or ‘thickness’ added on to a letter as a redundant characteristic (noting that it still must be exercised). Within tafkheem are categories and levels. This post hones in on the first category, letters that are always said mufakham (with tafkheem). These letters are the seven letters of isti’laa’ (elevation).

خُصَّ ضَغْطٍ قِظْ

These seven letters are always mufakham and are present across four “levels of tafkheem”, referred to as “maraatib al-tafkheem“.

1. The strongest level of tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters has a fat-ha on it, and is followed by an alif

Lil-taa’ifeena

2. The second level of tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters has a fat-ha on it, but is not followed by an alif

Tahhir 

Yafqahoon

3. The third level of tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters has a dammah on it

 

Unthur

Udkhuloo

4. The weakest level of tafkheem occurs when one of the 7 letters has a kasrah under it

 

Sinwaanun

Qibala

When one of the 7 letters of tafkheem has sukoon on it, the diacritic on the letter preceding it is looked at to determine the sub-level.

2. a) if the saakin letter has a fat-ha before it, it becomes the “third level of tafkheem“, written here as 2. a) as it slots between the second and third level noted above.

Wal-maghrib

3. a) if the saakin letter follows a dammah, it becomes the “fourth level of tafkheem“, written here as 3. a) as it slots between the third and fourth level noted above.

Muthlimoon

4. a) if the saakin letter has a kasrah before it, it becomes the “fifth level of tafkheem“, written here as 4. a) as it slots in with the fourth level noted above.

Ani-drib

So the levels of tafkheem can be summarised in a few ways. The first structure is as shown above. The other two are below.

 

There are 4 levels of tafkheem, with three sub-levels. These are:

1. Istilaa’ letter has fat-ha on it and an alif maddeeyah after it

2. Istilaa’ letter has a fat-ha on it

2. a) Istilaa’ letter is saakin and has a fat-ha before it

3. Istilaa’ letter has a dammah on it

3. a) Istilaa’ letter is saakin and has a dammah before it

4. Istilaa’ letter has a kasrah under it

4. a) Istilaa’ letter is saakin and has a kasrah before it

This structure is just a re-organised version of the one shown above.

 

The other structure states there are 5 levels of tafkheem. These are:

1. Istilaa’ letter has fat-ha on it and an alif maddeeyah after it

2. Istilaa’ letter has a fat-ha on it

3. Istilaa’ letter has a dammah on it

4. Istilaa’ letter has a sukoon on it

a) Istilaa’ letter is saakin and has a fat-ha before it

b) Istilaa’ letter is saakin and has a dammah before it

c) Istilaa’ letter is saakin and has a kasrah before it

5. Istilaa’ letter has a kasrah under it

I personally find the first (and second) structure to make more sense as a saakin tafkheem letter with fat-ha before it would naturally be “stronger in tafkheem” than a tafkeem letter with dammah on it. Simply, the notion of understanding that the sub-levels are a part of their own respective level is also clearer.

There is another school of thought which states there are only three levels of tafkheem, where the strongest has a fat-ha, middle has a dammah, and weakest has a kasrah. It combines the sub-levels of the saakin letter under their own respective level.

This concludes the first category of tafkheem. The next category may be looked at over a couple of posts. It’s nothing to fret about, though 🙂

Resources Link:

Sifaatul Aaridah: Letters of Tafkheem

Preventing two Saakins: Man’ Iltiqaa’ Al-Saakinayn

As a child, I was always fascinated by magnets: why two ‘south’ or ‘north’ poles would never ever click with one another. It took a while to understand the reasoning behind it. And as with that, there’s a real wisdom behind this rule which prevents two saakin letters from meeting…

This rule has been looked at from a number of angles, however it was never formally mentioned on the site.

Man iltiqaa’ al-saakinayn[1]: preventing two saakins from meeting (following one another) is that rule which is sometimes taken for granted although the Arabic language heavily endorses it.

The rule states: if a word ending with a madd letter precedes a word which starts with a sukoon, the madd letter is dropped so as to avoid/prevent two saakins from meeting; this of course only applies when continuing recitation. In replacement of the madd letter, its respective diacritic takes places (kasrah for yaa, fat-ha for alif, dammah for waaw). Here, it is important to note that madd letters in the Arabic language do not have a diacritic. They are considered to be saakin, and hence why this rule exists.

Let’s look at some examples,

Read as:

when continuing: wa qaala-l-hamdu lillahi ( و قالَ الحمد لله )

when stopping: wa qaalaa .. alhamdu lillahi ( و قالا .. الحمد لله )

Read as:

when continuing: ghayra muhilli-ssaydi ( غير محلِّ الصيد )

when stopping: ghayra muhillee .. assaydi ( غير محلّي .. الصيد )

Read as:

when continuing: aamanu-t-taqu-llaha ( ءامننُ اتقواْ لله )

when stopping: aamanoo .. ittaqu-llaha ( ءامنو .. اتقواْ لله )

Previously we noted this rule indirectly, when it occurs with hamzatul wasl (said under “circumstance 3” and on).

Also, the hamzatul wasl post contained a brief mention of this rule. Found where quoted: “Finally, I want to give an ex..”

That’s all for this post. I hope it wasn’t too complicated to repel you away from the upcoming tajweed rule! 😉

Resources Link:

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

– Short vowels [Gateway To Arabic:  page 23, 24]

– Long vowels [Gateway To Arabic: page 45, 46]

– Read more about rules of stopping [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 15]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.


[1] منع التقاء الساكنين

The Silent & Pronounced Alif

Have you ever noticed some people who seem to be present, can also seem to be invisible? Or sometimes they’re loud, and at other times they’re so quiet, they’re not even noticed…? Alif can do the same. Did you ever know? Find out below..

There are seven “alifs” in the Quran that that are sounded when stopping and silenced when continuing through in recitation. These alifs are signalled by the round sukoon-like shape above them: ( o )

These seven alifs are as follows:

– All occurrences of the word anaa ( أنا ) which have this symbol. When stopping, the alif is sounded for two counts (madd tabee’ee), but when continuing recitation, the alif is just sounded as a fat-ha. Example,

Read as:

when continuing: ana lakumأنَ لكم )

when stopping: anaa .. lakum (  أنا .. لكم  )

– This rule applies for the following words, in its own respective manner:

[Kahf 38]     Read as:

when continuing: laakinna huwa ( لاكنَّ هو )

when stopping: laakinnaa .. huwa (  لاكنّا .. هو  )

[Al-Ahzaab 10]     Read as:

when continuing: al-thunoona hunaalika (  الظنونَ هنالك  )

when stopping: al-thunoonaa .. hunaalika (  الظنونا .. هنالك  )

[Al-Ahzaab 66]     Read as:

when continuing: al-rasoola wa qaaloo (  الرسولَ و قالواْ  )

when stopping: al-rasoolaa .. wa qaaloo (  الرسولا .. و قالواْ  )

[Al-Ahzaab 67]     Read as:

when continuing: al-sabeela rabbanaa (  السبيلَ ربّنا  )

when stopping: al-sabeelaa .. rabbanaa (  السبيلا .. ربّنا  )

Let’s note this case. Scholars of the Quran have noted that it is permissible to stop on the word salaasilaa with a sukoon, or to stop on it with two counts on the alif:

[Al-Insaan 4]     Read as:

when continuing: salaasila wa aghlaalan (  سلاسلَ و أغلالاً  )

when stopping: salaasilaa .. wa aghlaalan (  سلاسلا .. و أغلالاً  )

when stopping: salaasil .. wa aghlaalan (  سلاسلْ .. و أغلالاً  )

Now let’s note two special cases.

The word qawaareeraa in surat Al-Insaan, verse 16 is never pronounced as a long vowel when stopping. And it is always pronounced with a fat-ha when continuing. This also applies for all the occurrences of the word “thamood” (that contain this silent alif).

[Al-Insaan 15]     Read as:

when continuing (after both words): qawaareera qawaareera (  قواريرَ قواريرَ  )

when stopping (after the first word): qawaareeraa .. qawaareera (  قواريرا .. قواريرَ  )

when stopping (after both words): qawaareeraa .. qawareer (  قواريرا .. قواريرْ  )

Read as:

when continuing: wa thamooda (  و ثمودَ  )

when stopping: wa thamood ( و ثمودْ  )

Be careful to never mistake these alifs for the other “normal” ones…

That’s all for this tajweed rule. Too easy. 🙂

Resources Link:

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

– Short vowels [Gateway To Arabic:  page 23, 24]

– Long vowels [Gateway To Arabic: page 45, 46]

– Read more about rules of stopping [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 15]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Al-Ith-haar Al-Mutlaq

At noon, you look up and see the skies are clear, you notice the mirror shines, free of marks, the glass on the bench twinkles as it catches some light, a perfect picture. Can anything be so perfect and clear? Noon, maybe?

Recall the post Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: Rule Four, Al-Idghaam. There we noted that if the letters laam, raa, yaa, noon, meem, or waaw followed a noon saakinah, idghaam (with or without ghunnah) must be sounded. But there was a very particular condition which stated that this can only occur over two words, never in one.

Ith-haar Al-Mutlaq[1] may be literally translated to “Showing Absolutely”, so basically, totally pure and perfect pronunciation of the noon letter. This tajweed rule applies for those times when a noon saakinah is followed by one of the above letters, but within one word.

And as per the name of the rule, the noon must be pronounced clearly, with no ikhfaa or idghaam whatsoever. There are four words in the Quraan which apply, and they are as follows,

Al-Dunyaa (in all it’s occurrences)

Bunyaanahu

Sinwaanun

Qinwaanun

Did you ever notice this? 🙂 Go back and note that all the noon saakinahs were followed by one of the idghaam letters – but you had always pronounced the noon clearly (I hope, at least!)

That’s all for this rule. Just a side note, sometimes it’s also named shaath[2].

Resources Link:

– Post: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: Rule Four

– Post: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: Rule One

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.


[1] إظهار مطلق
[2] شاذ

The Cutting Hamzah: Hamzatul Qat’

Have you ever wondered why the latest and greatest things are referred to as “cutting edge”? Like, cutting edge technology, or cutting edge research… Are there such things as cutting edge words? What about cutting off people in mid-sentence? Mid-word? Is there anything cutting edge enough to do that? Maybe a cutting hamzah

Hamzatul Qat’[1]: the cutting hamzah is represented by the following symbol ( ء ). It should not be mistaken with the letter alif ( ا ), but it should be noted that it often occurs on the alif ( أ or إ ). This post will cover some general rules about the hamzatul qat’, while also taking a close look at the letter itself.

The hamzatul qat’ sound is produced by cutting off the air stream at the top of the windpipe (then letting it go for a breath, of course!). It is similar to pressing the stop button on a tape player in mid-word.

The hamzatul qat’ can be found in a number of places within a word:

At the beginning it may appear as:

ءَأنْتُم      أحْمَد

Ahmad         A-antum

At the end of the word, it may appear on the line:

سَمَاءْ

Samaa’

The hamzatul qat’ also appears on the three voweled letters, and on a spike (commonly referred to as a “chair”) of it’s own.

On the alif, it can appear at the beginning of the word as shown previously, at the end of a word, or in the middle of a word:

سَأَلَ

Sa’ala

Appearing on the waaw under certain Arabic grammar rules, the hamzah looks like so:

مُؤْمِنَة

Mu’minah

The hamzah appears on the yaa at the end of the word as so:

بَرِيئْ

Baree’

Appearing on it’s own tooth, chair, or spike, the hamzah is written like so:

بِئْسَ

Bi’sa

From the above, we can observe that whenever a hamzatul qat’ enters on a harf madd, the harf madd is not sounded, rather the 2 vowels are cut simply into a fat-ha, dammah, or kasra. After all, it is the cutting hamzah!

Let’s observe some of the tajweed rules involved with this hamzah.

Hamzatul Wasl meets Hamzatul Qat’

When the hamzatul qat’ is preceded by a hamzatul wasl, there are two rulings.

If the hamzatul wasl is dropped, because the word starting with it is connected to the preceding word, then the hamzatul qat’ is sounded as per normal. Example,

Al-lathi-‘tumina

(read as الذِءْتُمِنَ )

If the hamzatul wasl is NOT dropped, because the reciter is starting at that word, then the hamzatul qat’ is dropped, and the harf madd it is “sitting on” is sounded for 2 counts. Example,

Oootumina

To break it down, the process is simple. The hamzah on the 2nd letter (i.e. the hamzatul qat) is “transferred” onto the hamzatul wasl, and the respective diacritic is assigned such that a madd badal is can then be sounded. Based on this process, the word above is read as أُوتُمِنَ 

Another example is as follows. In this word, the hamzatul qat is replaced by a yaa’ madeeyah such that the word “i-i-tinaa” beocomes

Ieetinaa

Hamzatul Qat’ and Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad

When a word ends with hamzatul qat’, whether on a yaa, or on the line, the hamzatul qat’ must be voweled for two counts. Example,

Binaaa’aa (when stopping)

Hamzatul Qat’ precedes Hamzatul Wasl

There is one occurance of this in the Quran (where a hamzatul qat’ precedes a hamzatul wasl). This word has the “ease of pronunciation” rule applied to it, because it is very difficult for the tongue to pronounce. It also ties in with the grammar rule about the impermissiblity of two saakin letters being together.

A-a-‘jamee

(read as ءَءَعْجَمِيٌّ ) – this word is found in Fussilat (41:44)

It would be impossible to say it with both saakin on the hamzatul wasl and the ayn, as the hamzatul wasl cuts off the air way, which prevents the tongue moving back to make the silent ayn sound!

Try it for yourself: block off your airway with your tongue, then move it back to say a slient ayn, and notice that your tongue cannot be at 2 places at the same time.

Hamzatul Qat’ opposes Qalqalah

As a final note, remember that hamzatul qat’ and qalqalah are complete opposites. Many people who stop at a word ending with a hamzatul qat’ will sound a small “ehh” qalqalah. 

Remember that qat’ means to cut, so you must cut off the airway AND cut off the sound.

You can test to see if you sound this small qalqalah by doing two things:

1. Place four fingers over your mouth and say a word that ends with hamzatul qat’. Example, samaa’

If, on your fingers, you feel a small amount of air being released at the end of the word, then you must be sounding this qalqalah (because the airway passage wasn’t cut off). Keep practising until you no longer feel this breath of air.

2. Record your voice for a few seconds, as you say “aaaa”. Play it back, and mid way hit the stop button. Compare that to what you sound like after saying a word that ends with hamzatul qat’. If you can notice that “ehh” sound, then you are not fulfiling the rights of this letter. Which means only one thing: practice.

For those who may be familiar with something called ishmaam and rawm, then I know what you’ll be protesting about. But that’s to discuss in another post.

Resources Link:

– Document “Hamzatul Qate’”

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.


[1] همزة الفطع

Hamzatul Wasl: exceptions we take for granted

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I’ve put together a few extra notes about hamzatul wasl that are worth remembering and noting. Many take these notes for granted, others don’t even know them. Just before I begin, I want to point out that some of these rules are heavily based on the Arabic grammar (which I won’t cover), or they relate to another tajweed rule I have not yet posted. Ultimately, there are two categories for this post. They will be as follows…

1. The Questioning Hamzah + Hamzatul Wasl

Definition of some words:

questioning hamzah: is that hamzah which turns a statement into a question, in the form of “a”, i.e. hamzah (  ء  )

participle: refers to that word which starts off with a hamzatul wasl. The type of hamzatul wasl is the definite article, in Arabic, the definite article is called the laam tareef, which is read and written as “Al-” before a word. It translates to “the” in English.

The rule:

If the questioning hamzah enters a word that starts with a hamzatul wasl of type participle, the hamzatul wasl is dropped and swapped for an alif. This does not change whether the laam in the original “Al-” is merged or pronounced based on whether it’s a laam shamseeyah or qamareeyah. Note, that when this occurs, it is called Al-Madd Al-Farq.

So, examples:

The original Arabic word is,

Ath-thakarayni

With the questioning hamzah, it is now pronounced as,

Aaa-thakarayni

A couple more examples:

Al-Aana (original Arabic word)

Aaal-aana (with questioning hamzah)

Allahu (original word)

Aaallahu (with questioning hamzah)

Just a side note, this questioning hamzah not only affects the hamzatul wasl, but it also acts upon the same concept of the madd badal tajweed rule. Note the first and last examples are also madd al-laazim kalimee muthaqqal, whereas the 2nd example is the madd al-laazim kalimee mukhaffaf.

2. The Preceding Sukoon

When a hamzatul wasl is preceded by a sukoon, a reciter has three options, based on the circumstance.

Circumstance 1: If the hamzatul wasl is preceded by the word min (مِنْ), then the silent noon is voweled with a fat-ha. We take this rule for granted, because the Quranic scripture does this for us already, we see it all the time and probably don’t even know about it.

A couple of examples,

Minal-jinnati

Faminallahi

Circumstance 2: If the hamzatul wasl is preceded by the pluralising silent waaw that is preceded by a fat-ha, or if the hamzatul wasl is preceded by the pluralising silent meem, then the meem/waaw are voweled with a dammah. As with above, the Quranic scripture does this for us. An example of each:

Ilaykumul-eemaana

Ishtarawud-dalalata

Circumstance 3: In all other cases, not covered in the first two circumstances, any word that ends with any form of sukoon that precedes a word starting with a hamzatul wasl of any form, must have the sukoon voweled with a kasra.

Some cases are covered by Quranic scripture. The sukoon is voweled for us ready to read. Examples of this are,

Wa Qaalati-mra’atu

Ani-drib

Cases not covered by the Quranic scripture are that which contain tanween in the preceding word. This can happen across two ayaat, or within one ayah. All the examples provided happen across two ayaat, however…

Examples:

Stopping: Shadeed. Al-latheena

Continuing: Shadeedinil-latheena

Stopping: Mahthooraa. Unthur

Continuing: Mahthooran-i-nthur

Stopping: Ahad. Allahu

Continuing: Ahadunillahu

A take-home message from this post would be to learn the two categories, and their rulings. Just so that you’re in the know. If you want to keep it simple for yourself, then the least you should do is remember the 2nd category’s 3rd circumstance about tanween.

Resources Link:

– Document “Hamzatul Wasl”

– The Definite Article “Al-” [Gateway To Arabic Book 2: page 16]

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

– Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Also note, there’s a main post that discusses hamzatul wasl.

The Connecting Hamzah: Hamzatul Wasl

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This type of hamzah is that of a complex nature, in that it differs based on a given circumstance. It’s ruling is simple, but the circumstances are many, I will try to cover as many necessary as possible, so that the tajweed rules for hamzatul wasl are as clear as can be!

To note as well, I have not delved into the grammatical aspect of this rule, it is very hard to understand for those who have little knowledge in Arabic, but insha Allah this will not be the cause of misunderstanding.

https://i0.wp.com/lumiere.sopheava.com/2006/1223_christmasLights.jpg

Hamzatul wasl[1]: the connecting hamzah, is an “extra” hamzah at the beginning of the word, sounded when starting a word, dropped when continuing from a previous word or voweled letter. It occurs in three places: nouns, verbs, and participles.

Before delving into that, however, let’s try to understand why a hamzatul wasl exists.

With only one exception, we should note that when reading in Arabic, more specifically, the Quran, we cannot start with a sukoon, and we cannot end with a diacritic (fat-ha, dammah, or kasra). Rather, we must start with a diacritic, and end with a sukoon!

Despite this rule, some words still begin with a sukoon due to their placement in a sentence or grammar definition. It is because of such words that the hamzatul wasl exists and is vital.

The  hamzatul wasl is often mistaken for alif. Although the alif is just a line ( ا ), and the connecting hamzah is also a line ( ا ), there is a particular calligraphic difference that helps a reciter distinguish the two. The letter alif usually has a hamzah ( ء ) on top or underneath, or has nothing at all, whereas the hamzatul wasl has a little saad drawn above it ( صـ ).

The hamzatul wasl should be clearly sounded if a reciter is starting a word that begins with this type of hamzah.

However, if a voweled letter preceeds this hamzah, then it should be dropped.

Without noting whether a verb, noun or participle, let’s look at some examples,

Fas-takbaroo

NOT Fa-astakbaroo

NOT Fa-istakbaroo

Rabil-‘aalameen

NOT Rabi al-‘aalameen

Al-hamdu

NOT Il-hamdu

Ith-hab

NOT Uth-hab

NOT Th-hab

The first two examples drop the hamzatul wasl, but the second two sound it. Notice though, the first has “Al-“, yet the second has “I-“. Now note this example,

Unthur

NOT Inthur

NOT N-thur

it starts with “U-“. This is, ultimately, showing reciters three different ways the hamzatul wasl can be pronounced.

So how do we pronounce it? When do we pronounce it like that? And how can we quickly recognise the difference?

Well, first let’s look at participles.

A hamzatul wasl precedes the laam tareef (the definite article) which is known in two situations: laam shamseeyah, and laam qamareeyah.

When this hamzatul wasl precedes this laam, it becomes the famous “Al-” which starts a word. When starting a sentence or word that has this “Al-“, the hamzatul wasl is always pronounced with a fat-ha.

So, the first situtation in which the hamzatul wasl is sounded, is when beginning a word that starts with “Al-“.

The hamzatul wasl is sounded with a fat-ha.

Whether the laam is sounded or merged, depends on whether it is shamseeyah or qamareeyah. It does not change the fat-ha on the hamzatul wasl at all.

So for example,

Al-qamar

The laam here is pronounced because it is a laam qamareeyah.

Ash-shams

The laam here is merged becaues it is laam shamseeyah.

In both situations though, the hamzatul wasl is still pronounced.

Still looking at participles, when the hamzatul wasl is dropped, is when a voweled letter precedes it.

So for example, if the above two words come after a voweled letter, the hamzatul wasl is dropped and the words are read as,

Wal-qamar

Where the ‘a’ in wal- is from the fat-ha on the waawWash-shams

Where the ‘a’ in wash- is from the fat-ha on the waaw

Let’s move away from participles now.

Let’s look at general examples of when the hamzatul wasl can be dropped.

The first example is of when the hamzatul wasl is dropped when the voweled letter before it is actually attached to the word,

Fatadoo

Where the ‘a’ is from the fat-ha on the faa

Next is an example of  when the hamzatul wasl is dropped because the last letter of the preceding word is voweled,

Humul-waarithoon

Where the ‘u’ is from the dammah on the meem from ‘hum’

Finally, I want to give an example of an exception. This is when the preceding word ends with a sukoon due to a harf madd. In these situations, a different tajweed rule comes into play. It is called mani iltiqaa’ al-sakinayn – I will look into this rule later insha Allah, but basically, in such a situation, you drop the hamzatul wasl, and you drop the harf madd which ends the preceding word.

Example,

Fakasawnal-‘ithaama

NOT Fakasawnaa-l‘ithaama

NOT Fakasawnaa al-‘ithaama

Wastakbaru-stikbaaran

NOT Wastakbaroo istikbaaran

I will not delve any further into that rule. But just know that it applies for words ending in the yaa madd letter, too.

Next is the hamzatul wasl in a verb.

This is where the “i” or “u” sound comes into play.

If you are beginning a verb with hamzatul wasl, then you must pronounce it with either a kasra or dammah. To know which of the two you must sound is very easily done. The trick is to look at the third letter in the verb. If the third letter has a dammah, you must sound the hamzatul wasl with a dammah, if the third letter has a fat-ha or a kasra, then you must sound the hamzatul wasl with a kasra.

A hamzatul wasl is never sounded with a fat-ha in verbs.

Examples of the this are as follow,

Udkhuloo

NOT Idkhuloo

Istash-hidoo

NOT Ustash-hidoo

In the above two examples, if these words had a voweled letter before them, the hamzatul wasl would be dropped. For example, a voweled waaw (wa) before them, they would be read as, wad-khuloo; and, wastash-hadoo respectively.

And finally, in the case of nouns.

With the exception of irregular nouns, the above “in verbs” rule applies. There is a very in-depth grammatical reasoning to this, which I find unnecessary to explain if one is here to learn how to read in tajweed. However, in regards to irregular nouns, I will touch on this briefly.

There are seven irregular nouns found in the Quran. The ruling with these nouns is that the hamzatul wasl is ALWAYS pronounced with a kasra if beginning with these words – whether or not the third letter has a dammah, kasra or fat-ha.

These seven words are,

ابن     ابنت     اثنتين     اثنين     اسم     امرأت     امرؤ

So to reiterate, if reading in continuation, the hamzatul wasl is dropped like any other word, however, if starting with one of these words, the hamzatul wasl is pronounced with a kasra.

I hope this all makes sense!

Now that you know the rulings for hamzatul wasl, go back and state the rule for each of the 5 words given in the five very first examples! 🙂

Then proceed to discover some of the hamzatul wasl ‘exceptions’ we take for granted.

Resources Link:

– Document “Hamzatul Wasl”

– The Definite Article “Al-” [Gateway To Arabic Book 2: page 16]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.


[1]: همزة الوصل

Al-Laam Al-Qamareeyah

A bright full moon always adds a beautiful hint of shine to the sky. It casts down a gorgeous reflection of white, streaking shadows across the ground. It’s a true blessing when everything else is dark, and it makes your path that much more clearer — just as it makes this laam qamareeyah pronounced clearly…

 

Al-Laam Al-Qamareeyah: or “the Moon Laam” is the laam saakinah (sukoon on the laam) which must be pronounced clearly. This laam occurs at the beginning of the word (Al- ..) and occurs in nouns.

Pronouncing it clearly happens with the remaining 14 letters that aren’t covered in the laam shamseeyah.

These letters for laam qamareeyah can be remembered by noting the phrase:

إبغ حجك و خف عقيمه

To reiterate, these letters are:

ا   ب   ج   ح   خ   ع   غ   ف   ق   ك   م   و   ه   ي

yaa – haa – waaw – meem – kaaf – qaaf – faa – ghayn – ‘ayn – khaa – haa – jeem – baa – alif

You will notice in Quranic scripture a little haa looking shape (حـ) above the laam. This is just to act as a reminder for reciters: to make sure that you remember to say Al-… and not merge the laam into the next letter.

Examples of al-laam al-qamareeyah:

Al-Baladi

Al-hooni

Al‘aalameena

Kal-jibaali

Note: just because there is a letter before, this does not change the ruling for the laam.

Here’s a challenge: can you guess why none of the “Al-” nouns have tanween on the end?

Don’t cheat. But if you can’t figure it out, read the answer on page 61 of Gateway To Arabic.

Resources Link:

– Tajweed Rule “the moon letters” [Gateway To Arabic: page 61]

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

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Al-Laam Al-Shamseeyah

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Do you favour sunny days over cool nights? Or a bright glowing moon instead? This post is filled with sunshine, so pop on your sunnies and get ready… you’ll now be officially introduced to our star (pun intended)…..Sunny Laam! …no: not Lamb!

There is a big contradiction between the way I type transliteration, and this post. You will come to realise this as I begin to explain this rule.

Al-Laam Al-Shamseeyah: is the laam which occurs at the beginning of a word, whereby it is merged with the letter that follows it.

Let’s note:

a) In the case where the laam is merged, the “ll” sound it makes is completely eliminated.

b) For the laam to be merged, it must be a silent laam.

c) Considering no word in the Arabic language can start with a sukoon, the merging of the laam cannot happen unless the word begins with “Al-“. This is because – had there been no alif before the laam – there would be nothing to “make possible” the merging of the “ll” sound.

d) The letter following the laam that must be merged HAS TO BE one of the following 14 letters:

ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن

Note the first letter of each word in the following phrase, these are the 14 letters stated above, sometimes phrases are easier to remember for those more fluent in Arabic:

طِبْ ثُمَّ صِلْ رَحِماً تَفُزْ ضِفْ ذَا نِعَمْ دَعْ سُوءَ ظَنٍّ زُرْشَرِيفَاً لِلْكَرَمْ

e) You will notice, part of the Quranic scripture, that there is a shaddah on the letter that invokes this merging.

f) For the laam to be merged, it cannot be part of the original make up of the word.

Now let’s see examples:

On the right is the letter example and the Quranic script, on the left is how it is read.

In order, from top to bottom:

taa: Al-taa’iboona = At-taa’iboona

thaa: Al-thamaraati = Ath-thamaraati

daal: Al-daa‘eeya = Ad-daa‘eeya

thaal = Wal-thaariyaati = Wath-thaariyaati

In order, from top to bottom:

raa: Al-Rahmaani = Ar-Rahmaani

zaal: Al-zaqoomi = Az-zaqoomi

seen: Al-saa’ihoona = As-saa’ihoona

sheen: Al-shamsu = Ash-shamsu

saad: Al-saalihaati = Assaalihaati

daad: Al-daalleena = Addaalleena

In order from top to bottom:

tah: Al-taammatu = Attaammatu

thah: Al-thaanneena = Aththaanneena

laam: Al-layl = A-llayla

noon: Al-naas = An-naasi

Note that merging the laam into the next letter cannot happen unless you sound a shaddah on that letter, i.e. for the last word in the examples, you must say, “annaasi” not “anasi”. If a shaddah is not sounded, the meaning can change entirely.

That’s all for this sunny post! Just remember, sunny laam = merging = no laam at all = shaddah. Beautiful examples and practice on page 62 of the Gateway To Arabic resource file. Link to resource page is found below.

Resources Link:

-Tajweed Rule “the sun letters” [Gateway To Arabic: page 62]

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

– Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gateway To Arabic: page 49]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Al-Madd Al-Tamkeen

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Have you ever come across something so simple that you’ve thought it’s too insignificant to consider… or take note of?

Many tajweed books nowadays have omitted this madd because of it’s necessity that comes naturally when reciting. Yet, I thought I should post it here so that you can all be more aware that such a rule exists.

Al-Madd Al-Tamkeen [1]: occurs when a yaa mushaddadah with a kasr is followed by a yaa saakinah. This occurs only within a word, as words cannot start with a sukoon.

To be more specific: within a word, you notice a yaa that has a shaddah, and a kasra, this generally looks like this:

ــيِّــ

then you notice that after this yaa is another one, which has sukoon on it. Naturally as you pronounce this word, you are sounding this rule, al-madd al-tamkeen.

Examples of where this occurs in the Quran are as follow:

 

 

wa ithaa huyyeetum

wa khaatama al-nabiyyeen

wal-ummiyyeen

As you may have noticed, sometimes it is written as two yaa-s, or sometimes only one yaa is written and the “mini” symbol for the second yaa (the yaa saakinah) is drawn.

That’s it for al-madd al-tamkeen! Can you guess why it’s classed as a madd?

Look up the shaddah and sukoon on the resources page by following the link below.

Resources Link:

– Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.



[1] Al-Madd Al-Tamkeen: المد التمكين

 

Al-Isti’aathah & Al-Basmalah

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heesbees hasn’t been very active for the past month. In fact, the inactivity has caused me to draw back to the ayaat,

“All that is on earth will perish.”

“But will abide forever the Face of thy Lord, full of Majesty, Bounty and Honour”

[Al-Rahman 55; Ayahs 26-27]

 

Insha Allah, however, July will be filled with a heap of awesome new posts! Allahumma ameen!

To begin… A‘oothu billaahi min al-shaytaani al-rajeem. Bismillahi al-rahmani al-raheem.

If you haven’t guessed already, today’s post is about the isti‘aathah and the basmalah.

The isti‘aathah and basmalah have six rulings all together. Within these rulings branch sub-rulings. Insha Allah I will try my best to set these out in the clearest manner possible.

 

In case you’re not top notch in Arabic, al-isti‘aathah is:

A‘oothu billahi min al-shaytaani al-rajeem

And the basmalah is:

Bismillahi Al-rahmani Al-raheem

Rule 1: it is mustahab (recommended) to say the isti‘aathah at the beginning of each surah, or when beginning from within it. Note, however, that one isti‘aathah is enough for reciting the entire Quran, so long that the recitation is not cut off.

Examples:

a) Beginning the Quran with surat Al-Faatiha. The isti‘aathah is said, and the recitation has begun. This one isti‘aathah is enough for all the recitation you do, even if it were surat Baqarah, Aali ‘Imraan, Al-Nisaa’, etc. so long the recitation is continual and not cut off by talk, or physical distraction that causes the recitation to stop momentarily.

 

b) You are reading surat Al-Baqarah. You begin with an isti‘aathah, then you read four pages. You stop reciting for duhur salah, when you begin reciting again from page 5, it is up to you to say the isti‘aathah again or not, however it is recommended.

Rule 2: it is sunnah mu’akkadah (emphasised sunnah) to say the basmalah at the beginning of every surah, except surat Al-Tawba.

Rule 3: in the middle of a surah, it is up to the reader entirely whether they wish to say the basmalah (which indeed is better) or not to say it at all.

Rule 4: the reciter has the option to join the isti‘aathah with the basmalah with the beginning of a surah. Doing this can be done in four manners:

a) wasl al-jamee (connecting all three): isti‘aathah, basmalah and first ayah in one breath, example:

b) joining theisti‘aathah and basmalah in one breath and cutting them off from the beginning of the surah by a breath. Example:

c) cutting theisti‘aathah from the basmalah by a breath, and joining the basmalah with the first ayah in one breath, example:

d) qate’ al-jamee (breaking all three): cutting the isti‘aathah from the basmalah by a breath. Then breaking the basmalah from the first ayah by a breath. Example:

Rule 5: the basmalah between two surahs. Three rules of joining/cutting are permissible, where one is not.

The premissible:

a) wasl al-jamee (connecting all three): the last ayah of the former surah, with the basmalah, with the first ayah of the latter surah all in one breath, example:

b) qate’ al-jamee (breaking all three): the last ayah from the basmalah by a breath. And the basmalah from the first ayah by a breath. Example:

c) breaking the last ayah of the former surah from the basmalah by a breath. And joining the basmalah with the first ayah of the latter surah in one breath, example:

The impermissible:

d) joining the last ayah of the former surah with the basmalah in one breath, then breaking the basmalah from the first ayah of the latter surah by a breath, example:

Rule 6: there is no basmalah at the beginning of surat Al-Tawbah (also called Baraa’ah). If reading from the beginning of the surah, then an isti‘aathah is enough. If wishing to join it on from Surat Al-Anfaal the reciter has three options:

a) joining the last ayah of surat Al-Anfaal with surat Al-Tawba without doing a sakt (breathless pause), or taking a breath. Example:

b) to join the last ayah of surat Al-Anfaal with a sakt only – a short pause without taking a breath – for a length of two counts, example:

c) to stop after the last ayah and take a breath, then immediately start surat Al-Tawba, example:

There you have it. Six rulings. Lots of sub-rulings. It took me a while, but insha Allah they are all down pat now. 🙂

It’s best to actually write these down… it was the only way it ever got into my noggin…

If you have any questions, buzz in, would love to help out any confused minds… 🙂

Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee

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This post is a continuation from the previous: Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee

If you’ve made it to this point… then know that you’re just 6 counts away from finishing the foundational tajweed rules! 🙂 One last omph and you can badge up a .:mujawwid/ah:. tag and stick it on your galaabeeyah 🙂

Al-Madd Al-Laazim Al-Harfee: letter based necessary prolongation is the second branch of al-madd al-laazim. This posts discusses the difference between al-madd al-laazim harfee mukhfaffaf and harfee muthaqal as outlined in the diagram.

Both types of madd laazim harfee only apply to those chapters in the Quran that start with letters. Some of these surahs include Surat Al-Baqarah, Surat Maryam, and Surat Qaaf. Each surah begins with letters that have a special case, all of which the al-madd al-laazim tajweed rule covers.

First it should be noted that there are 3 exceptions.

The first of which is the letter alif ( ا ). This letter is not prolonged, rather it is said plainly: “alif”.

Next, the letters,

ح      ي      ط      هـ      ر

raa,      haa,      taa,      yaa,      haa,

are only prolonged for 2 counts. You can remember these letters by remembering the phrase

حي طهر

hayy tuhr

Note: these letters are not said as they are in the alphabet. Meaning, you do not say yaa’ ( ياء ) rather, only yaa ( يا ) is said. This applies for all 5 letters.

The last exception is the letter ‘ayn (  ع ). This letter, as agreed upon by many scholars, can be prolonged for 2, 4, or 6 counts with 4 counts being the preferred length. I haven’t completely grasped the wisdom behind this – maybe you could input your knowledge of this exception. 🙂

Al-madd al-laazim hafree muthaqal (heavy letter based necessary prolongation) only occurs in one form (in the Quran).  It is where one of the letters (at the opening of a surah) is pronounced using three sounds, where the middle sound is a harf madd and the last sound is merged with the beginning sound of the next letter.

Let’s put this into context. The opening of Surat Al-Baqarah is alif – laam – meem.

One of these letters is pronounced with three sounds. It is laam.

ل

pronounced ( لام )

The first sound is “L” the second, a harf madd is “aa” (for alif) and the third is a meem, “mm”.

The next letter after laam is meem. The last sound of laam is “mm” and the beginning sound of meem is “mm”, hence the two “mm” sounds are merged during recitation, fulfilling the conditions of heavy letter based necessary prolongation.

The example:

alif – laaammeeem


Al-madd al-laazim hafree mukhaffaf (light letter based necessary prolongation) applies to those letters which do not merge. Each letter is prolonged for 6 counts, except where the above exceptions occur. The letters for this type of madd have 3 sounds. The middle is a harf madd, and the end is a saakin (hence why no merging occurs). An example is the letter qaaf.

ق

pronounced ( قافْ )

The first sound is a “Q”. The second a harf madd, “aa” for alif, the third is a saakin faa “ff”.

The letters that apply to this type of madd are,

ن      ق      ص      ع      س      ل      ك      م

meem,    kaaf,    laam,    seen,    ‘ayn,    saad,    qaaf,    noon

You can remember these letters by remembering the phrase,

نقصَ عَسَلُكُم

naqasa ‘asalukum

Examples of light letter based necessary prolongation are as follow [where cts = counts]:

haa meeem

2 cts  –  6 cts

kaaaf haa yaa ‘ayyn saaad

6 cts – 2 cts – 2 cts – 4 cts – 6 cts

‘ayyn seeen qaaaf

4 cts – 6 cts – 6 cts

nooon

6 cts

I’ve run out of breath. Hope everything makes sense.

If you need any clarifications, buzz through. 🙂

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, ninth madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-’Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee.

Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

Do you enjoy really long walks? By the seaside or greenery? If you enjoy lengthy “anythings”, then you’ll definitely enjoy sounding this lengthy madd

Al-Madd Al-Laazim: necessary prolongation is the longest madd in tajweed. It is an umbrella term that branches into 2 types, which also branch into another 2 types, hence making a total of 6 types of necessary prolongation.

In this post I will discuss the right branch of al-madd al-laazim.

The right branch is kalimee (word based). This branches out again into two types, the first, muthaqal (heavy) and the second, mukhaffaf (light).

The rule for necessary prolongation is an occurrence of a grammatical (Arabic) rule. This rule says that no two saakin letters can follow one another (as this is very difficult on the tongue). To abide by this rule, a madd is slotted between the two saakins for 6 counts. Let’s now differentiate between light and heavy word based necessary prolongations.

Al-madd al-laazim al-kalimee al-muthaqal (heavy word based necessary prolongation) occurs in words that have a laazim saakin letter (where the letter has sukoon as part of the original make up of the word) after a harf madd. This sukoon is a result of a shaddah. As explained in a previous post, a shaddah causes a letter to be doubled where the first occurrence has a sukoon, and the second has a diacritic (more about shaddah here). Examples of al-madd al-laazim al-kalimee al-muthaqal are as follow:

Al-haaaqqah

Wal-saaaffaat

Al-daaalleen


Al-madd al-laazim al-kalimee al-mukhaffaf (light word based necessary prolongation) occurs in a word where a harf madd is followed by a laazim saakin letter whereby this sukoon is not merged with another letter. What does this mean? Just above I said that a shaddah causes the doubling of a letter, and hence, you are merging the first occurrence with the second to make it sound as 1 mushaddad letter. In this case, the letter with a saakin is not because of a shaddah, it is just a sukoon ( ْْْْo ْ) that is part of the original make up of the word. This type of necessary prolongation is sounded for 6 counts.

This type of madd only occurs twice in the Quran. The word is the same, even the surah is the same. Here it is:

Surat Yunus; Ayah 51:

Aaal-aana waqad kuntum bihi tastajiloona

Surat Yunus; Ayah 91:

Aaal-aana waqad ‘asayta

Considering this madd is so long, I’ve tried my best to keep this post short! 🙂

Hope everything makes sense, though. Let me know if it doesn’t.

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, ninth madd listed

– Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

– Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-’Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

The time it takes to repair and re-connect depends on how frequent you undergo a check up. Remember to revisit your heart’s checklist [emotion, faith, intentions, etc] occasionally in order to shorten the time it needs to wholeheartedly repent and re-connect with Allah. Keep in mind though, this isn’t the only connection you’ll need to take care of…..

Al-Madd Al-Silah[1]the connecting prolongation directly relates to the grammatical rule regarding the [possessive] pronoun that represents a third party of male gender. This [possessive] pronoun is simply the addition of the letter haa ( هــ ) at the end of a word. Therefore the referred third party is not part of the original make up of the word. At the end of a word, the letter haa looks like this ( ــه ).

The purpose of this madd is to lengthen the dammah in order for it to sound like a waaw (و) or to lengthen the kasra to sound like a yaa (ي). Explanation below.

Al-madd al-silah separates into two types: kubra (longer) and sughra (lesser).

Al-madd al-silah al-sughra (the lesser connecting prolongation) has the following conditions:

– the madd becomes void if the reciter stops at the end of the word, sounding a haa saakin, i.e. you must continue to the next word in order to sound this madd

– the haa on the end of the word must not be part of the original word

– the haa sits between two voweled letters (two letters that have a diacritic on them – neither of the two can have a sukoon)

– the haa is not followed by a hamzah ( ء or أ )

– the haa is voweled with either a dammah or a kasra, but NOT a fat-ha

the dammah or kasra is lengthened for 2 counts only


Al-madd al-silah al-kubra (the longer/larger connecting prolongation) has the following conditions:

– the madd becomes void if the reciter stops at the end of the word, sounding a haa saakin, i.e. you must continue to the next word in order to sound this madd

– the haa on the end of the word must not be part of the original word

– the haa sits between two voweled letters (two letters that have a diacritic on them – neither of the two can have a sukoon)

– the haa must be followed by a hamzah ( ء or أ )

– the haa is voweled with either a dammah or a kasra, but NOT a fat-ha

– the dammah or kasra is lengthened for 4 -5 counts

Conditions 1, 2, 3, and 5 are the same for kubra and sughra.

Examples of al-madd al-silah sughra:

lahuu maa fee

‘ibaadihii khabeeraa

kitaabahuu waraa’a

Examples of al-madd al-silah kubra:

maalahooo akhladahu

haathiheee eemaanan

 

wathaaqahuuu ahadun

So did you notice anything similar throughout the examples?

Yes, something other than the fact they are all madd silah… 🙂

Did you notice a little waaw and a little yaa after the [possessive] pronoun haa?

These little symbols make this madd too easy!

Notice on the madd silah kubra, all the little symbols have a madd above them).

Notice on the madd silah sughra, all the little symbols don’t have anything above or below!

As you read, just do a check. Does this haa have a little waaw or yaa after it? If so, then know it’s madd silah.

Does this little waaw or yaa have a madd squiggle on top? If so, then it’s a silah kubra, and stretch your yaa or waaw for 4 – 5 counts.

Simple! Right?

Before I close off this post, I want to note that there are some exemptions.

Two exemptions for silah sughra are as follow:

Here there is no madd although all the madd silah sughra conditions are met:

yardahu lakum

Here there is a madd although not all the madd silah sughra conditions are met (there is a harf saakin before the haa):

feehii muhaanan

Note 1: there is a third case where the possessive pronoun haa is feminine. In this case, madd silah is still done:

haathihii tathkiratun

Note 2: in case you wanted an example of when the haa is part of the original makeup of a word, here it is below:

fawaakihu wa hum mukramoona

All the conditions of madd silah are present (except the haa being unoriginal). It is because of this, that no madd silah is said.

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, eighth madd listed

-Short and long vowels  [Gatway To Arabic: pages 21-23; and 44-47]

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.



[1] Al-Madd Al-Silah Al-Kubra wa Al-Sughra: المد الصلة الكبرى و الصغرى


Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

Have you ever been in those situations where an awkward silence is bound to happen? And when it does, it feels as though time stretches tenfold? Check out what happens to this stretchy prolongation when it hits a short silence (sukoon)!

https://i2.wp.com/blog.jalbum.net/blog/jalbum/resource/tips/interior_photography_m.jpg

Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon[1]: temporary prolongation occurs only at the end of an ayah (or when stopping after a word) that has a harf madd in it (ا    or     ي     or    و). There are certain conditions to this madd, these are as follow.

-The harf madd should be the 2nd last letter in the word

-The sukoon is found in stopping on [the sound of] the last letter of the word

-The harf madd must not have a fat-ha, dammah or kasra on it, e.g. ( يـَ   or   يـِ   or  يـُ )

-The preceding letter must have a suitable diacritic, i.e. dammah for waaw, fat-ha for alif, kasra for yaa

-The reciter must stop after the word being recited in order to sound this madd 4 or 6 counts

-The reciter can sound this madd for 2 counts whether they are stopping or not, but generally, 2 counts are sounded only when the reciter wishes to continue.

In the special case where a fat-ha precedes the harf madd yaa or waaw, it becomes known as al-madd al-leen, covered in this post. Al-madd al-leen has the same principles as al-madd al-‘aarid lil sukoon.

Examples of al-madd al-‘aarid lil sukoon:

yastawfooon

al-‘aalameeen

al-fasaaad

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, seventh madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-BadalAl-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.


[1] Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon: المد العارد للسكون

Al-Madd Al-Leen


NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

Lean meat, lean on me, leniency…. Which “leen” is it? Let’s find out.

Al-Madd Al-Leen[1]: easy/eased prolongation only occurs when the reciter is stopping recitation after the word containing the madd, eg. for a breath, or at the end of an ayah, etc.

Let’s look at why this is so.

Al-madd al-leen occurs when a waaw saakinah ( وْ ) or a yaa saakinah ( يْ ) are preceded by a letter with the fat-h diacritic ( ــَـ).

To be able to sound al-madd al-leen, the yaa or waaw must be “stretched” and not simply read with a sukoon.

The length of elongation is a choice made by the reader of either:

2 counts; or

4 counts; or

6 counts.

But not all three.

Or two.

Or a mix.

Conditions of al-madd al-leen:

-it’s letters are waaw saakinah and yaa saakinah

-these letters must be preceded by a letter that has a fat-ha

-to sound this madd, the reciter must stop after saying the word containing the madd (otherwise the madd is void).

Contrary to Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad, this madd becomes void if you are not going to stop at the end of the word. An example of this is as follows:

Al-bayta mathaabatan

Here we can see that the conditions of al-madd al-leen are fulfiled in that the harf madd yaa has been preceded by a fat-ha. But we do not stretch this yaa for 2, 4, or 6 counts. Why? Because we continued onto the next word, mathaabatan.

It is situations like these that al-madd al-leen becomes completely void.

An example of when you do sound al-madd al-leen:

Ahla-l-bayti

Ahla-l-lbayyt

Visible after the word bayt, is the “jeem” character noting to the reciter it is preferable to stop reading. In this situation, we stretch the yaa in bayt for 2, 4 or 6 counts and stop for a breath. More examples:

Khawwf

Al-sayyf

A side note to readers who are more knowledgeable in Tajweed: al-madd al-leen relies on al-madd al-‘aarid lil sukoon. If you are going to stop after a word, you sound the ‘aarid madd. This is the same case with al-madd al-leen only it’s special case has been noted down as an entirely different tajweed rule.

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, sixth madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-BadalAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.


[1] Al-Madd Al-Leen: المد اللين

Al-Madd Al-Badal

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

This madd is very simple. Almost as simple as the madd tabee‘ee, in fact. You might just be surprised to know you have been doing this madd since you first started reading Quran without even realising it… Have a read for yourself….

long picture

Al-Madd Al-Badal: substituted prolongation occurs when a hamza (ء) preceeds a harf madd (ا    or     ي     or    و).

This madd is sounded for two counts when continuing recitation or stopping after the word with the madd.

This madd is only found within one word, and occurs when the hamza has the respective diacritic on it, e.g. if the harf madd ‘waaw’ follows a hamza, the hamza has a dammah on it.

Examples of al-madd al-badal:

Aadama

Ootoo

Eemaanan

The following is an example of a word that does NOT fulfil the conditions of a madd badal, and hence it is not sounded for two counts:

Aymaanahum

To reiterate, the reason this word doesn’t have madd badal is because the hamza before the harf madd has a diacritic not suitable for the harf madd. The suitable diacritic for yaa is kasra, however the hamza here has a fat-ha.

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, fifth madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’IwadAl-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

Have you ever wondered why many people have opted to take the escalator instead of stairs? Have we compensated health for convenience? Will you sound this compensated madd?

Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad: compensated prolongation, occurs only at the end of a word that has tanween fat-h.

It’s conditions are as follow:

1. A word ends with tanween fat-h (  اً  ) which has caused the word to end with the letter alif (  ا  )

2. You will stop after this word (e.g. you have reached the end of an ayah)

3. You must prolong the alif for two counts without pronouncing the tanween fat-h

4. This madd is void if you are not stopping after the word, i.e. you sound the tanween fat-h and continue reading

Let’s take a look at some examples and view the above conditions practically.

Examples of madd ‘iwad:

madd iwad pic

hakeemaa

madd iwad 2 pic‘athaaban aleemaa

madd iwad 3 picithan abadaa

‘aleeman khabeeraa


Here you can see how the madd becomes void when you are continuing onto the next word, and how it is sounded when you are stopping. Of course, what ever you do, keep in mind that this madd is only for tanween fat-h. You definitely do not say a madd when it is tanween damm or kasr.

Resources link:

‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, fourth madd listed

-‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-MutasilAl-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil Al-Madd Al-
Badal
– Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

Whether you’re doing the splits, visiting Split, or eating a banana split, you can’t go past sounding a [split] permissible prolongation!

https://i1.wp.com/exploitedtimes.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/snapped-rope1.jpg

Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil: Permissible prolongation, occurs when a word ends with a harf madd (ا    or     ي     or    و) and is followed by a word that begins with hamza (ء).

The name here has come about because of it’s rule. Madd means to prolong. Jaa’ez means permissible. Munfasil means detached/separated.

What is meant by munfasil? The madd is sounded over two words, i.e. the finger space between two words should be sounded with a madd.

What is meant by jaa’ez? It is not obligatory to sound this madd. The harf madd can be just sounded for it’s normal length of two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say “one-two”.

Therefore, when you come across a madd jaa’ez munfasil, you have three options:

1. To skip it and just sound the harf madd for 2 counts

2. To sound it for 4 counts

3. To sound it for 5 counts

To reiterate it’s conditions:

1. Must be over two words (if it is in one word, it becomes a madd waajib mutasil)

2. It is not compulsory to sound it

3. If you choose to sound it, you must do so always for the same length, i.e. either 4 or 5 counts, but not both

Examples of a madd jaa’ez munfasil:

fee anfusikum

feeee anfusikum

bimaa anzaltu

bimaaaa anzaltuquu anfusakum

quuuu anfusakum

Important note on Quranic scripture: words that have “yaa” ( يا ) before them are usually connected as seen in the following example. However they are still two words, and the ruling of madd jaa’ez munfasil must be applied to it.

yaa ayyuhal naasu

yaaaa ayyuhal naasu

Resources Link:

‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, third madd listed

-‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-MaddAl-Madd Al-Tabee’eeAl-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad – Al-Madd Al-
Badal
– Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

What’s your favourite childhood game? Connecting puzzles, connect-a-four, or practicing the connected obligatory prolongation?

Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil: is the obligatory prolongation. It is prolonged for either four or five counts (your choice of either). If you choose to prolong for four counts, then this must remain consistent throughout your recitation. Likewise is if you chose to prolong for five counts.

This madd is obligatory when when a hamzah (ء) follows a harf madd ( ا    or     ي     or    و ) within one word.

To reiterate, the conditions of this madd are:

-Is only done in one word (hence why some refer to it as being “connected”)

-Occurs only when a hamzah follows either of the following letters: alif, yaa, waaw.

-The madd is prolonged for four or five counts, one chosen and used consistently

Four counts is approximately the time it takes to say “one-two-three” at medium pace

Five counts is approximately the time it takes to say “one-two-three-four” at medium pace

Examples:

____________

Al-shitaaa‘                       Yashaaa

_______

Al-Malaaa‘ikatu             Al-saaa‘ila

Yes, three a‘s to emphasise the difference between a normal madd letter and this madd.

For the two other madd letters:

_______

Al-sooo‘u              Wa jeee‘a

Note the second example, wa jee’a. Recall that any madd letter with a sukoon drawn above it remains completely unpronounced.

See post: Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee

Resources Link:

‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’ second madd listed

-‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-MaddAl-Madd Al-Tabee’eeAl-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-MunfasilAl-Madd Al-‘Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

In the same way we sometimes wished that our holiday period can be a little longer, your tongue, ears and some letters themselves wish that they’re said for a little longer. ‘Why?’, you may think… Well, how obscure to the ear is it to hear someone say a dammah instead of a waaw? And how hard is it for them to continue the ayah without stumbling (after not prolonging)? … Let’s start by looking at this first prolongation…

Al-Madd Al-tabee‘ee: normal/natural prolongation is the act of prolonging or “stretching” the sound of the three madd letters:

ي          و          أ

alif     waaw     yaa

for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say (one-two).

The rule has the following conditions:

The huroof al-madd must all be silent, i.e. have no diacritic on them.

A fat-ha must be present on the letter before a silent alif

A dammah must be present on the letter before a silent waaw

A kasrah must be present on the letter before a silent yaa.

Examples of this are as follow:

________

___qaala          qeela               yaqoolu

These examples can be combined into one word to help you remember the rule. The word is

نُوحِيهَا

nooheehaa

I really want to stress the fact that in the Quran you will not see a diacritic on these three letters if they are in the state of madd.

It will be an alif, waaw, or yaa with no fat-ha, dammah, kasra, or sukoon ontop/underneath. When I say that these letters must be silent, I am not saying they have sukoon. In fact, if you see a sukoon on an alif or waaw or yaa it means that you are not to stretch this letter whatsoever.

An example of sukoon present on these letters is as follows:

Mala-ihi

NOT: Mala-eehi

Aaminoo

NOT: Aaminooaa

Ulaa-ika

NOT: Uoolaa-ika

A final thing to be wary of is something called “‘ella” letters. This is when the three madd letters have no diacrtic on them, but are not prolonged because the letter preceeding them does not have the corresponding diacritic mentioned in the above conditions. This will be further discussed in a later post, insha Allah.

Resources Link:

-Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Makhaarij Al-Huroof [dot points 5, 7, 12, 15]

-Short and long vowels  [Gatway To Arabic: pages 21-23; and 44-47]

-Tajweed Rule [Gatway To Arabic: page 4-6 and first half of page 7]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-MaddAl-Madd Al-Waajib Al-MutasilAl-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Ahkaam Al-Madd

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One of the largest sections of Tajweed is Ahkaam Al-Madd. There are 9 different types of madd, with two further splitting into five segments, therefore making the total of 13.

To help me remember these mudood (plural of madd), I drew up a table with the name of each madd, the length of it in the two states [where applicable], and placed an example in the last column. This file can be found in the resources page, under the heading, Jadwal Al-Mudood.

It will slowly start making sense as I post the specifics of each madd.

To conclude, and perhaps this should have been introduced instead, a madd is “prolongation”. And so “Ahkaam Al-Mudood” means “Rules of Prolongation”.

As I have now completed posting the nine mudood, select one from the list below to begin!

Related Posts: Al-Madd Al-Tabee’eeAl-Madd Al-Waajib Al-MutasilAl-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-‘IwadAl-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Al-Qalqalah

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This-is-is    post-ost-ost    will-ill-ill    be-be-be    about-out-out    Qalqalah-ah-ah…

But what is Qalqalah? First, be rest assured I won’t type echos for the rest of the post. Because it’d get a tad annoying for both author and reader. The word itself sounds repetitive and as interesting as it’s Tajweed rule.

Qalqalah: sound articulation and echo. In essence the word means shaking/disturbance. In Tajweed, it means to disturb the letter that has sukoon, i.e. that is saakin, but without any corresponding movement of the mouth and jaw that is associated with voweled letters (i.e. letters that have fat-ha, dammah, or kasra). Qalqalah “shakes” to “echo” the letter without taking up the preceding or succeeding letter’s diacritic.

To explain:

There are five letters in the Arabic alphabet that apply to Qalqalah. These five letters are:

ق          ط          ب          ج          د

daal      jeem       baa       tah      qaaf

To easily remember these letters, remember the phrase they make up, (قطب جد).

Simply, Qalqalah is echoing the above five letters when they are in state of sukoon, i.e.

قْ     طْ     بْ     جْ     دْ

To feel the importance of Qalqalah, try saying (أط), how about (أق) you’ll find one of two things happen. Either the back end of your tongue gets stuck and it’s difficult to loosen it and breathe, or your tongue will naturally slip and the back of your mouth is open again. It is this “slipping” that Qalqalah is based on. Disturbing the letter without moving your jaw or mouth. Try it for the rest of the letters, (أد) and (أج) and (أب). Imagine trying to say the word,

أبْناء

If there was no “slipping”/”shaking”/”echoing” of the letter baa (بْ) then how hard would it be to say the noon (ن) straight away with your lips still pressed together? Doing Qalqalah will cause your lips to “slip” a bit i.e. open up a tiny bit without adding a diacritic to the baa, to make it easy to pronounce the noon. On a final note, as one Imam puts it,

The qalqalah is necessary for these letters because they have the attributes of jahr (stoppage of the flow of breath) and shiddah (stoppage of the flow of sound), so without qalqalah, there would be no sound!

But as the blog has not covered attributes of letters yet, this might just sound all too surreal for some.

There are three types of Qalqalah:

Qalqalah Kubra (Strong Echo): occurs at the end of an ayah.

Qalqalah Wusta (Medium Echo): occurs at the end of a word in the middle of an ayah.

Qalqalah Sughra (Subtle Echo): occurs in the middle of a word whether at the beginning, middle or end of an ayah.

Examples of Qalqalah:

Kubra (strong):

_______Kasab __________________ Al-falaq

________Muheet _________________Masad _________________ Al-ma’aarij


You may notice the the last letters that require Qalqalah don’t actually have sukoon drawn above them! Diacritics have been put in place for readers who want to continue reading without a pause through to the next ayah. However, stopping at the end of every ayah is preferred and so in these such circumstances you must do a strong Qalqalah.

Wusta (middle):

qad aflaha ___________najid lahu

 

Here the sukoon is clearly marked on the Qalqalah letters.

V.I.Note: if you run out of breath and wish to stop in the middle of an ayah, and you stop at a word that has a qalqalah letter on the end, you must, must, must read it as a qalqalah kubra! For example, if I wanted to stop at the word qad in the above example, the daal must be echoed strongly. Then if I were to continue reading by repeating the word and continuing, I do a qalqalah wusta.

Here’s the example again:

[reciting] … [out of breath] … [stopping at word qad] … [doing a strong echo on the daal] … [takes breath] … [wants to continue] …

[start at the word qad and reads: qad aflaha, doing a qalqalah wusta on the daal].

Simple!

Sughra (subtle):

khalaqna _ _______________tat-heeran _____________________ abnaa’akum__

Similarly the sukoon is clearly marked on the Qalqalah letters.

Resources Link:

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 9]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Makhaarij Al-Huroof [dot points 5, 7, 12, 15]

 


I suggest visiting Quranic Audio to listen to Qalqalah.

Select your favourite reciter and listen to Surat Al-Falaq [113]/Al-Masad [111]/Al-Qiyaamah [75] for Qalqalah kubra.

Qalqalah wusta and sughra occur throughout the entire Quran. I don’t think there is any particular one you really should listen to. Surat Al-Qalam [68] has a fair few Qalqalah sughra. I also suggest Surat Al-Muzzamil [73] for a combination of wusta and sughra.

Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: rule three

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Clarity is sometimes what we’re all after. Likewise, some things just need to be said as clear as mmmmud. Right?

Rule three: Ith-haar Shafawee (pronouncing the meem clearly)

Ith-haar Shafawee is pronouncing the meem saakinah (مْ) clearly and occurs when any of the remaining [excluding the letters meem and baa (ب)] follow a meem saakinah. The condition here is that these letters have a diacritic on them, (fat-ha, dammah, kasra).

Examples of Ith-haar Shafawee:

mathaluhum kamathali

am lahum

hum feehaa

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: second half page 10]

Related Pages: Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa shafaweeAl-Meem Al-Saakinah: idghaam shafawee

Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: rule two

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The first rule for Al-Meem Al-Saakinah looked at the succession of a meem after a meem saakinah (مْ).

The second rule looks at meem saakinah followed by a baa (ب).

Rule two: Ikhfaa Shafawee (Hiding the sound by the use of the lips)

The second rule is enacted only when the latter baa follows a silent meem (meem saakinah). The condition here is that the baa must be mutaharik, i.e. have a diacritic (fat-ha, dammah, kasra).

The sound of the meem is hidden and the lips are shaped, ready to pronounce the baa. You may ask how can the meem be hidden? The answer is simple: do not press your two lips together completely [as you would if you were to pronounce a full meem]. Leave a very little gap and let the sound of the meem come from the deeper part of your mouth while you prepare to say the baa. By letting the meem come from the inner mouth, it’s sound stays encapsulated behind the teeth, and so the meem is hidden. Remember that this rule is carried out for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

On a different, yet very important, note…

The rules for Al-Noon Al-Saakinah used a shaddah for notice purposes, i.e. to remind the reader to carry out the Al-Noon Al-Saakinah rule. Here, instead, the meem remains completely free of any diacritic. This is a notice for the reader to do ikhfaa shafawee.

And one last thing to recall…

At the end of the meem rules, I keep using the word “shafawee“. This is very important to distinguish the normal noon saakinah/tanween idghaam/ith-haar/ikhfaa from the ones done by the lips for the meem saakinah.

Examples of Ikhfaa Shafawee:

hum bil-aakhirati

tarmeehem bi-hijaaraten

ayyuhum bithaalika

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: second half page 10]

-Makhaarij Al-Huroof [dot point 15]

Related Pages: Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: ith-haar shafaweeAl-Meem Al-Saakinah: idghaam shafawee

Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: rule one

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As with Al-Noon Al-Saakinah, Al-meem Al-saakinah has it’s own Tajweed rules.

The fourth rule for Al-Noon Al-Saakinah described what idghaam is. Because meem is a letter pronounced using the lips[1] the rule differs a bit.

Rule one: Idghaam Shafawee (Lip-based Merging or Merging with the use of lips).

For any meem saakinah, when a second meem follows it, Idghaam Shafawee is sounded for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”. The condition here is that the latter meem has a fat-ha, dammah or kasra on it. Note a shaddah on the second meem is drawn as a notice of this rule [i.e. it is not there for shaddah purposes].

Examples of Idghaam Shafawee are as follow:

___ __

lahum maa ____quloobihim maradun

__ _____

faghashiyahum mina ______ am man

Simple as that. Practice makes perfect.

Resources Link:

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: second half page 10]

Related Pages: Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: ith-haar shafaweeAl-Meem Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa shafawee


[1] -View the document ‘Maakharij Al -Huroof’ or ‘Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More’ pages 3 and 4 titled Origin of Letters

Noon and Meem Mushaddadah

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shaddah

Qaala sanashuddu ‘adudaka bi akheeka

Allah said: “We will strengthen your arm through your brother..”

In the Arabic language, there are diacritics [including the fat-ha, dhammah and kasrah] that can be the reason a word’s meaning changes completely. One of these diacritics is the shaddah. Insha Allah I will briefly explain what this is and move on to the Tajweed rule regarding the Noon and Meem letters that have a shaddah.

Directly translating the word shaddah, results in the meaning “[sign of] emphasis”. In general language, it means to pull or make something tight. But how does the shaddah actually function? It stresses a letter by doubling it’s sound. As given in a previous post [see “Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule four”], a  shaddah consists of two letters [hence the doubling]:

The first letter is a saakin, i.e. it has sukoon on it

The second letter has a respective diacritic, fat-ha, dammah, or kasrah.

The example given in the previous post was:

fawaylun lillatheena

Here we noted that the first shaddah on the laam was there for notice purposes, and the second was there to be a shaddah and double that second laam. And so the word is read as:

lil-latheena as written above, lillatheena

See, two laam‘s.

Just to be sure it all makes sense, a few more examples of shaddah are as follow:

________________

kar-ratan fanatabar-ra‘a _______________ it-tabi‘u

karratan fanatabarra’a _______________ ittabi‘u

wal mutal-laqaatu yatarab-basna

wal mutallaqaatu yatarabbasna


bu‘ulatuhun-na ahaq-qu birad-dihin-na

bu‘ulatuhunna ahaqqu biraddihinna


To briefly explain the colour code. The light green is where the doubling of the letter occurs. The darker green is the respective diacritic that follows the doubling.

Now that the shaddah is down-pat understood, the Tajweed rule regarding the shaddah is as follows.

For every noon and meem mushaddad, i.e. for every noon and meem that have a shaddah, one must sound a ghunnah.

Recall a ghunnah is the sound made entirely by the nose [nasal passage]. It is almost like a hum and completes the sound of the noon or meem. Ghunnah is directly translated to “nasalisation” and this should not be longer than two counts. i.e. similar to the time it takes to say the words: “one – two”

This rule in Arabic is called, ghunnat noon/meem mushaddadah.

It is the simplest rule, because you just need to check, does the noon/meem have a shaddah on top? If so, sound a ghunnah.

Examples for ghunnat noon mushadadah are:

____________________

Examples of ghunnat meem mushaddadah are:

____________________

And it’s as simple as that! This Tajweed rule is complete! Where you see a shaddah on a meem or noon, just do a ghunnah.

But wait.

As I mentioned, diacritics have the ability to change the entire meaning of a word/sentence. I don’t like to just say things, so let’s prove it.

Let’s look at the word:

دَرَسَ

darasa

Darasa means “he studied”. Now let’s add a shaddah to this word:

دَرَّسَ

dar-rasa

Darrasa means “he taught”. Very simple, very big difference. One more example.

The sentence:

بَكى صَبِيٌّ

bakaa sabiy-yun

This sentence means “a boy cried”.

Adding another two shaddah causes two things, letters alif and laam to be added making the boy an object being pointed to, and the meaning to change.

Note:

بَكَّى الصَّبِيُّ

bak-kaa al-sabiy-yu

Which means “[he] made the boy cry”.

Later you will come to realise that not only do diacritics change the meaning of things, but so does the pronunciation of a letter.

As for Tajweed, just remember shaddah + meem or noon = ghunnah.

Resources Link:

Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Ghunnah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

-Diacritics [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 4]

Practicing diacritics exercises up to page 6

[Gateway To Arabic: pages 21 – 24]

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: first half page 10]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

… ارخيلا بتنرخا

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule four

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merging colours

Merging things together can be heaps of fun. I tend to enjoy combining colours together to create new, fascinating ones. The fourth rule for Al-Noon Al-Saakinah is all about merging/combining. This rule is said to be one of the most complicated rules. But there is nothing to fret about because practice makes perfect, insha Allah.

Rule four: Al-Idghaam — Al-Idkhaal (To merge with)

There are two types of Idghaam. and from these two, a couple more branch out. Take a look at the diagram below:

idghaam typesSo what does all this mean?

Let’s start with what ghunnah means.

Ghunnah: A ghunnah is the sound made entirely by the nose [this is in regards to the sounds coming from the mouth].

An Idghaam bi ghunnah occurs with any Tanween or Noon Saakinah if it is followed by any of these letters:

ي       ن       م       و

waw meem noon yaa

This completes the first level of the diagram when following the rightmost arrow.

Merging without ghunnah, i.e. Idghaam bila ghunnah occurs when the letters

ل    ر

raa   laam

follow a Noon Saakinah or Tanween. Now the leftmost arrow of the first level of the diagram is complete. [i.e. the entire first level is now complete].

With these two letters, raa and laam, their idghaam is called: idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel, or in English, merging without ghunnah fully.

Here the “nn” sound from the Tanween or Noon Saakinah is completely eliminated and the laam or raa are said straight away without any emphasis on their sounds. Hence why the “fully” is added onto the end – i.e. noting that the “nn” sound is “fully” wiped out.

Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel / merging without ghunnah fully:

merging without ghunnah
waylun likulli humazatin lumazah

The two “n” I have in red are completely eliminated and so the verse is read as,

waylulikulli humazatilumaza

Notice the two green letters are now the place where the two words are connected without the Tanween. Some students [and I know quite a few] have trouble in the beginning trying to connect two words without the “nn” sound in between. They end up “leaning on” the laam or raa and saying them as though there is a shaddah[1] on these two letters. However there isn’t.

But here you may protest that in fact there is. Look at the example above. There is a shaddah on the laam in both cases for the words likulli and lumazah. This shaddah is not there for shaddah purposes. It has been put there as a notice to the reader that the Tanween (or Noon Saakinah) is not to be pronounced at all, not even through the nasal passage.

Below is a second example using a Noon Saakinah.

merging noon

min rabbi read as, mir-rabbi

While I still have your attention [I hope], and avoiding any confusion possible, insha Allah, I’ll continue on with the rightmost arrow, merging with ghunnah.

Recall that a ghunnah is a sound made entirely by the nose [nasalisation], somewhere between a hum and a moan. Like an aeroplane engine, probably. The merging with ghunnah letters as above have two categories. “Full” and “lesser”. Full idghaam means that this aeroplane humming comes through sounding a lot stronger than it would when the lesser one is made. The letters,

ن      م

meem noon

coincide with a full idgham bi ghunnah, where as the remaining letters,

ي       و

waw yaa

are to be said with a “lesser idgham bi ghunnah“. Idgham bi ghunnah, whether fuller or lesser is sounded for two counts, similar to the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of a full idghaam bi ghunnah:

____________

rasoolun min                                min marqadinaa

min maarijen min naaren

(3 occurrences of a fuller idghaam bi ghunnah)

note: min maarij   –   maarijen min   –   min naar


Examples of lesser idghaam bi ghunnah:

dalaalatun walaakinni

min yawmihem

 

Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel:

bideenaaren la

fawaylun lillatheena

Notice here the shaddah on the first laam is to note the ruling of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel. The second shaddah however is there for shaddah purposes. You are to “double” the sound of the second laam so it is said as I’ve written above, lil-latheena.

 

Idghaam is something I find very beautiful. It’s adds a tremendous tone to recitation and I think it, alongside the rule regarding noon and meem mushadadah, adds a very serene and tranquil sensation for the both listener and reader.

What’s that rule I just mentioned? Keep an eye out for new posts.

 

Resources Link:

Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

 

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haar –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab


[1]Shaddah: is to double the sound of a letter so that it is stressed. Such a letter is said to be mushaddad.


Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule three

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Allahuma ya muqaliba al-quloob thabit qalbi ‘ala deenika

اللهم يا مُقلِّبَ القُلوب … ثبتْ قَلبي على دينكَ




Rule Three: Iqlaab — Tahweel Al-shay’ ‘an wajh (Flipping).

After every Noon Saakinah or Tanween, if the letter baa (ب) follows, the sound must be flipped [i.e. changed] to the sound of the letter meem (م). This is represented by a little meem on top of the letter itself as pictured below:

The lips should not be entirely pressed together, to allow for the meem to come through the nasal passage as well. The mouth should be prepared to say the baa after sounding through the meem. So the above, min b‘ad is sounds like mimm b‘ad when read. What ever you do, take this piece of advice and do not get mixed up between the full shaped meem (م) drawn above letters to indicate iqlaab, and the cut meem (مـ) to indicated a compulsory stop. Refer to the resources link below. Iqlaab must be sounded for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of the third rule are as follow:

example one: min b‘ad – منْ بَعْدِ

example two: layunbathanna – لَيُنْبِذَنَّ

example three: samee‘an baseeran – سَمِيعَاً بَصِيراً

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gateway to Arabic, page 48]

– Rules of stopping [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 15]

Tanween [Gateway to Arabic: page 40]

[Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: pages 11 – 14]

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haar –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: idghaam


More about the Arabic letters can be found here: http://www.meem.freeuk.com/ scroll down to the “ABJAD TABLE” and select a letter.

اللهم يا مُقلِّبَ القلوب ثبتْ قلبي على دينك

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule two

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The following is rule two of four for the Noon Al-Saakinah/Tanween.

We all know the children’s game, hide and seek. Here, the Noon Al-Saakinah must be hidden [i.e. not pronounced clearly]. Read on.

Hide And Seek

Rule Two: Ikhfaa — Al-sitr (where the Noon/Tanween is not pronounced clearly, i.e. is hidden).

The first rule listed six letters that follow the noon al-saakinah. In that case, it must be pronounced clearly. Of the remaining letters in the Arabic alphabet, the second rule, ikhfaa applies.

The letters which are covered in rules three and four, are the exception to this rule.

These letters are:

ب    و    م    ن    ي    ر    ل

laam    raa    yaa   noon    meem    waa    baa

When one of the remaining letters follows a noon saakinah or tanween, ikhfaa must be done. This is when the noon saakinah or tanween is hidden in the nose. Here, the mouth is to be shaped in a manner such that it is “prepared” for the next letter. For example, if the next letter is a taa with a dhammah then the mouth is prepared to say this by changing it into a small “o” shape, and the tongue positions itself in the right place within the mouth[2]. This can occur across two words or be contained in one.

Ikhfaa must be sounded for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of the second rule are as follow:

example one: min qabl –   منْ قبلِ

example two: kitaabun kareem –   كِتابٌ كريم

example three: antum –   أنْتم

It is not necessary that you learn all these letters. It is however advised that you learn the 6 ith-haar, and 7 exception, letters and so when reading, just do a quick check to see if the letter is not one of the 6 ith-haar letters, or the exception letters above, then do ikhfaa. This takes a while to get used to, and soon you’ll forget you even have to do a check because you internalise it.

Besides, it’d be almost the impossible to try and bring out an “nn” sound from your nasal passage when needing to shape your mouth for a “h” sound for haa, or an “a” sound for alif.

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gateway to Arabic, page 48]

– Makhaarij Al-Huroof

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haarAl-Noon Al-Saakinah: idghaam –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab


[1] – More about the Arabic letters can be found here: http://www.meem.freeuk.com/ scroll down to the “ABJAD TABLE” and select a letter.
[2] – Refer to the document Makhaarij Al-Huroof under the resources page.

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule one

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As per people, letters are different. You find some people are quiet, other are loud. But regardless of this, there are places when even the loud ones must be quiet! Take for example, the library or art gallery.

Quiet Zone

In Tajweed there are rules regarding the silent noon[1]. This is known as “Al-Noon Al-Saakinah” in Arabic. The rules regarding the silent noon also apply to tanween [2].

Rule One: Ith-haar Al-Bayan (where the noon/tanween is pronounced clearly).

It’s pronounced clearly only when the following is true:

The noon has a sukoon[3] on it (نْ) and one of the following letters come after it (whether in the same word or following one)[4]:

alif, haa, khaa, ayn, ghayn, haa

هـ     غ      ع       خ       ح      أ

Note this also applies for the Tanween.

Examples of this are as follow:

example one: hakeemin hameedحكيمٍ حميد

example two: an aqeemoo أنْ أقيموا

Please note that I have put up very beneficial documents under the “resources” page. I hope these are of benefit.

Resources Link:

Tanween [Gateway to Arabic: page 40]

[Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: pages 11 – 14]

Sukoon [Gateway to Arabic: page 48]

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaaAl-Noon Al-Saakinah: idghaam –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab


[1]noon: the 25th Arabic letter, that makes a “n” sound, such as in the words, “n”ear, “n”or, A”nn”. The letter in arabic is written as ن

An interesting website all about the letter noon is here: http://www.meem.freeuk.com/Noon.html

[2]The tanween is an “n” sound added to the end of the word in certain circumstances, usually it functions just like the “a” and “an” in English, indicating an indefinite article. The word tanween, usually translated as “nunation”, means “to ‘n'”, or “‘n’ing”, making an “n” sound. There are three types of tanween:

1- fat-ha tanween
2 – kasra tanween
3 – damma tanween

fat-ha tanween: The fat-ha tanween is pronounced “an”, as in “animal”.

kasra tanween: The kasra tanween is pronouced “in”, as in “in”, “tin”, “fin”, etc. Some native Arabic speakers might indicate a kasra tanween with an “en”, thinking that “e” sounds like the Arabic “yaa” letter. This is a mistake that stems from not knowing how native English speakers pronounce the “e” sound.

damma tanween: The dhamma tanween is pronounced as a short “oo” followed by an “n”. This sounds like the short “un” in “uno”, not like the long “oon” in “soon”.

tanween at the end of a sentence: If the tanween is the last thing in the sentence, it’s not pronounced. In the case of a fat-ha tanween, the alif is pronounced as a long vowel.

[3] – More about sukoon can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_diacritics#Suk.C5.ABn

[4] – More about these letters can be found here: http://www.meem.freeuk.com/ scroll down to the “ABJAD TABLE” and select one of the abovementioned letters to learn more about it.

Tajweed: The Foundations

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

Tajweed Foundation
Tajweed Foundation

Tajweed is to give every letter it’s right and pronounce it from the correct place in the  mouth/nose/throat. The word itself means “to make better”

In Tajweed there is “fard kifaayah[1], where not all people must know a certain rule. Example of this in Islam is the prayer of the dead. “Fard ayn[2] is compulsory for all Muslims to do/learn, i.e. reading with Tajweed .

There are three types of reading:

1- Al-tahqeeq: where Quran is read very slowly with Tajweed
2 – Al-tadweer: where Quran is read at a medium pace with Tajweed
3 – Al-hadr: where Quran is read quickly with Tajweed

 

Resources Link:

Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: pages 1 – 3 and midway of page 4


[1] – Sufficiency duty or fard al-kifaya (الواجب الكفائي‎) is a duty which is imposed on the whole community of believers (ummah). The classic example for it is jihad: the individual is not required to perform it as long as a sufficient number of community members fulfil it.
[2] – Individual duty or fard al-ayn (الواجب العين) relates to tasks every Muslim is required to perform, such as daily prayer (salah), hijab, or the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (hajj).