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Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee May 25, 2011

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This post is a continuation from the previous: Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee

If you’ve made it to this point… then know that you’re just 6 counts away from finishing the foundational tajweed rules! 🙂 One last omph and you can badge up a .:mujawwid/ah:. tag and stick it on your galaabeeyah 🙂

Al-Madd Al-Laazim Al-Harfee: letter based necessary prolongation is the second branch of al-madd al-laazim. This posts discusses the difference between al-madd al-laazim harfee mukhfaffaf and harfee muthaqal as outlined in the diagram.

Both types of madd laazim harfee only apply to those chapters in the Quran that start with letters. Some of these surahs include Surat Al-Baqarah, Surat Maryam, and Surat Qaaf. Each surah begins with letters that have a special case, all of which the al-madd al-laazim tajweed rule covers.

First it should be noted that there are 3 exceptions.

The first of which is the letter alif ( ا ). This letter is not prolonged, rather it is said plainly: “alif”.

Next, the letters,

ح      ي      ط      هـ      ر

raa,      haa,      taa,      yaa,      haa,

are only prolonged for 2 counts. You can remember these letters by remembering the phrase

حي طهر

hayy tuhr

Note: these letters are not said as they are in the alphabet. Meaning, you do not say yaa’ ( ياء ) rather, only yaa ( يا ) is said. This applies for all 5 letters.

The last exception is the letter ‘ayn (  ع ). This letter, as agreed upon by many scholars, can be prolonged for 2, 4, or 6 counts with 4 counts being the preferred length. I haven’t completely grasped the wisdom behind this – maybe you could input your knowledge of this exception. 🙂

Al-madd al-laazim hafree muthaqal (heavy letter based necessary prolongation) only occurs in one form (in the Quran).  It is where one of the letters (at the opening of a surah) is pronounced using three sounds, where the middle sound is a harf madd and the last sound is merged with the beginning sound of the next letter.

Let’s put this into context. The opening of Surat Al-Baqarah is alif – laam – meem.

One of these letters is pronounced with three sounds. It is laam.

ل

pronounced ( لام )

The first sound is “L” the second, a harf madd is “aa” (for alif) and the third is a meem, “mm”.

The next letter after laam is meem. The last sound of laam is “mm” and the beginning sound of meem is “mm”, hence the two “mm” sounds are merged during recitation, fulfilling the conditions of heavy letter based necessary prolongation.

The example:

alif – laaammeeem


Al-madd al-laazim hafree mukhaffaf (light letter based necessary prolongation) applies to those letters which do not merge. Each letter is prolonged for 6 counts, except where the above exceptions occur. The letters for this type of madd have 3 sounds. The middle is a harf madd, and the end is a saakin (hence why no merging occurs). An example is the letter qaaf.

ق

pronounced ( قافْ )

The first sound is a “Q”. The second a harf madd, “aa” for alif, the third is a saakin faa “ff”.

The letters that apply to this type of madd are,

ن      ق      ص      ع      س      ل      ك      م

meem,    kaaf,    laam,    seen,    ‘ayn,    saad,    qaaf,    noon

You can remember these letters by remembering the phrase,

نقصَ عَسَلُكُم

naqasa ‘asalukum

Examples of light letter based necessary prolongation are as follow [where cts = counts]:

haa meeem

2 cts  –  6 cts

kaaaf haa yaa ‘ayyn saaad

6 cts – 2 cts – 2 cts – 4 cts – 6 cts

‘ayyn seeen qaaaf

4 cts – 6 cts – 6 cts

nooon

6 cts

I’ve run out of breath. Hope everything makes sense.

If you need any clarifications, buzz through. 🙂

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, ninth madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-’Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee.

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Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee January 25, 2011

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In the same way we sometimes wished that our holiday period can be a little longer, your tongue, ears and some letters themselves wish that they’re said for a little longer. ‘Why?’, you may think… Well, how obscure to the ear is it to hear someone say a dammah instead of a waaw? And how hard is it for them to continue the ayah without stumbling (after not prolonging)? … Let’s start by looking at this first prolongation…

Al-Madd Al-tabee‘ee: normal/natural prolongation is the act of prolonging or “stretching” the sound of the three madd letters:

ي          و          أ

alif     waaw     yaa

for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say (one-two).

The rule has the following conditions:

The huroof al-madd must all be silent, i.e. have no diacritic on them.

A fat-ha must be present on the letter before a silent alif

A dammah must be present on the letter before a silent waaw

A kasrah must be present on the letter before a silent yaa.

Examples of this are as follow:

________

___qaala          qeela               yaqoolu

These examples can be combined into one word to help you remember the rule. The word is

نُوحِيهَا

nooheehaa

I really want to stress the fact that in the Quran you will not see a diacritic on these three letters if they are in the state of madd.

It will be an alif, waaw, or yaa with no fat-ha, dammah, kasra, or sukoon ontop/underneath. When I say that these letters must be silent, I am not saying they have sukoon. In fact, if you see a sukoon on an alif or waaw or yaa it means that you are not to stretch this letter whatsoever.

An example of sukoon present on these letters is as follows:

Mala-ihi

NOT: Mala-eehi

Aaminoo

NOT: Aaminooaa

Ulaa-ika

NOT: Uoolaa-ika

A final thing to be wary of is something called “‘ella” letters. This is when the three madd letters have no diacrtic on them, but are not prolonged because the letter preceeding them does not have the corresponding diacritic mentioned in the above conditions. This will be further discussed in a later post, insha Allah.

Resources Link:

-Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Makhaarij Al-Huroof [dot points 5, 7, 12, 15]

-Short and long vowels  [Gatway To Arabic: pages 21-23; and 44-47]

-Tajweed Rule [Gatway To Arabic: page 4-6 and first half of page 7]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-MaddAl-Madd Al-Waajib Al-MutasilAl-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

 

Ahkaam Al-Madd January 12, 2011

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One of the largest sections of Tajweed is Ahkaam Al-Madd. There are 9 different types of madd, with two further splitting into five segments, therefore making the total of 13.

To help me remember these mudood (plural of madd), I drew up a table with the name of each madd, the length of it in the two states [where applicable], and placed an example in the last column. This file can be found in the resources page, under the heading, Jadwal Al-Mudood.

It will slowly start making sense as I post the specifics of each madd.

To conclude, and perhaps this should have been introduced instead, a madd is “prolongation”. And so “Ahkaam Al-Mudood” means “Rules of Prolongation”.

As I have now completed posting the nine mudood, select one from the list below to begin!

Related Posts: Al-Madd Al-Tabee’eeAl-Madd Al-Waajib Al-MutasilAl-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-‘IwadAl-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

 

Al-Qalqalah January 4, 2011

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This-is-is    post-ost-ost    will-ill-ill    be-be-be    about-out-out    Qalqalah-ah-ah…

But what is Qalqalah? First, be rest assured I won’t type echos for the rest of the post. Because it’d get a tad annoying for both author and reader. The word itself sounds repetitive and as interesting as it’s Tajweed rule.

Qalqalah: sound articulation and echo. In essence the word means shaking/disturbance. In Tajweed, it means to disturb the letter that has sukoon, i.e. that is saakin, but without any corresponding movement of the mouth and jaw that is associated with voweled letters (i.e. letters that have fat-ha, dammah, or kasra). Qalqalah “shakes” to “echo” the letter without taking up the preceding or succeeding letter’s diacritic.

To explain:

There are five letters in the Arabic alphabet that apply to Qalqalah. These five letters are:

ق          ط          ب          ج          د

daal      jeem       baa       tah      qaaf

To easily remember these letters, remember the phrase they make up, (قطب جد).

Simply, Qalqalah is echoing the above five letters when they are in state of sukoon, i.e.

قْ     طْ     بْ     جْ     دْ

To feel the importance of Qalqalah, try saying (أط), how about (أق) you’ll find one of two things happen. Either the back end of your tongue gets stuck and it’s difficult to loosen it and breathe, or your tongue will naturally slip and the back of your mouth is open again. It is this “slipping” that Qalqalah is based on. Disturbing the letter without moving your jaw or mouth. Try it for the rest of the letters, (أد) and (أج) and (أب). Imagine trying to say the word,

أبْناء

If there was no “slipping”/”shaking”/”echoing” of the letter baa (بْ) then how hard would it be to say the noon (ن) straight away with your lips still pressed together? Doing Qalqalah will cause your lips to “slip” a bit i.e. open up a tiny bit without adding a diacritic to the baa, to make it easy to pronounce the noon. On a final note, as one Imam puts it,

The qalqalah is necessary for these letters because they have the attributes of jahr (stoppage of the flow of breath) and shiddah (stoppage of the flow of sound), so without qalqalah, there would be no sound!

But as the blog has not covered attributes of letters yet, this might just sound all too surreal for some.

There are three types of Qalqalah:

Qalqalah Kubra (Strong Echo): occurs at the end of an ayah.

Qalqalah Wusta (Medium Echo): occurs at the end of a word in the middle of an ayah.

Qalqalah Sughra (Subtle Echo): occurs in the middle of a word whether at the beginning, middle or end of an ayah.

Examples of Qalqalah:

Kubra (strong):

_______Kasab __________________ Al-falaq

________Muheet _________________Masad _________________ Al-ma’aarij


You may notice the the last letters that require Qalqalah don’t actually have sukoon drawn above them! Diacritics have been put in place for readers who want to continue reading without a pause through to the next ayah. However, stopping at the end of every ayah is preferred and so in these such circumstances you must do a strong Qalqalah.

Wusta (middle):

qad aflaha ___________najid lahu

 

Here the sukoon is clearly marked on the Qalqalah letters.

V.I.Note: if you run out of breath and wish to stop in the middle of an ayah, and you stop at a word that has a qalqalah letter on the end, you must, must, must read it as a qalqalah kubra! For example, if I wanted to stop at the word qad in the above example, the daal must be echoed strongly. Then if I were to continue reading by repeating the word and continuing, I do a qalqalah wusta.

Here’s the example again:

[reciting] … [out of breath] … [stopping at word qad] … [doing a strong echo on the daal] … [takes breath] … [wants to continue] …

[start at the word qad and reads: qad aflaha, doing a qalqalah wusta on the daal].

Simple!

Sughra (subtle):

khalaqna _ _______________tat-heeran _____________________ abnaa’akum__

Similarly the sukoon is clearly marked on the Qalqalah letters.

Resources Link:

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 9]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Makhaarij Al-Huroof [dot points 5, 7, 12, 15]

 


I suggest visiting Quranic Audio to listen to Qalqalah.

Select your favourite reciter and listen to Surat Al-Falaq [113]/Al-Masad [111]/Al-Qiyaamah [75] for Qalqalah kubra.

Qalqalah wusta and sughra occur throughout the entire Quran. I don’t think there is any particular one you really should listen to. Surat Al-Qalam [68] has a fair few Qalqalah sughra. I also suggest Surat Al-Muzzamil [73] for a combination of wusta and sughra.

 

Noon and Meem Mushaddadah December 10, 2010

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shaddah

Qaala sanashuddu ‘adudaka bi akheeka

Allah said: “We will strengthen your arm through your brother..”

In the Arabic language, there are diacritics [including the fat-ha, dhammah and kasrah] that can be the reason a word’s meaning changes completely. One of these diacritics is the shaddah. Insha Allah I will briefly explain what this is and move on to the Tajweed rule regarding the Noon and Meem letters that have a shaddah.

Directly translating the word shaddah, results in the meaning “[sign of] emphasis”. In general language, it means to pull or make something tight. But how does the shaddah actually function? It stresses a letter by doubling it’s sound. As given in a previous post [see “Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule four”], a  shaddah consists of two letters [hence the doubling]:

The first letter is a saakin, i.e. it has sukoon on it

The second letter has a respective diacritic, fat-ha, dammah, or kasrah.

The example given in the previous post was:

fawaylun lillatheena

Here we noted that the first shaddah on the laam was there for notice purposes, and the second was there to be a shaddah and double that second laam. And so the word is read as:

lil-latheena as written above, lillatheena

See, two laam‘s.

Just to be sure it all makes sense, a few more examples of shaddah are as follow:

________________

kar-ratan fanatabar-ra‘a _______________ it-tabi‘u

karratan fanatabarra’a _______________ ittabi‘u

wal mutal-laqaatu yatarab-basna

wal mutallaqaatu yatarabbasna


bu‘ulatuhun-na ahaq-qu birad-dihin-na

bu‘ulatuhunna ahaqqu biraddihinna


To briefly explain the colour code. The light green is where the doubling of the letter occurs. The darker green is the respective diacritic that follows the doubling.

Now that the shaddah is down-pat understood, the Tajweed rule regarding the shaddah is as follows.

For every noon and meem mushaddad, i.e. for every noon and meem that have a shaddah, one must sound a ghunnah.

Recall a ghunnah is the sound made entirely by the nose [nasal passage]. It is almost like a hum and completes the sound of the noon or meem. Ghunnah is directly translated to “nasalisation” and this should not be longer than two counts. i.e. similar to the time it takes to say the words: “one – two”

This rule in Arabic is called, ghunnat noon/meem mushaddadah.

It is the simplest rule, because you just need to check, does the noon/meem have a shaddah on top? If so, sound a ghunnah.

Examples for ghunnat noon mushadadah are:

____________________

Examples of ghunnat meem mushaddadah are:

____________________

And it’s as simple as that! This Tajweed rule is complete! Where you see a shaddah on a meem or noon, just do a ghunnah.

But wait.

As I mentioned, diacritics have the ability to change the entire meaning of a word/sentence. I don’t like to just say things, so let’s prove it.

Let’s look at the word:

دَرَسَ

darasa

Darasa means “he studied”. Now let’s add a shaddah to this word:

دَرَّسَ

dar-rasa

Darrasa means “he taught”. Very simple, very big difference. One more example.

The sentence:

بَكى صَبِيٌّ

bakaa sabiy-yun

This sentence means “a boy cried”.

Adding another two shaddah causes two things, letters alif and laam to be added making the boy an object being pointed to, and the meaning to change.

Note:

بَكَّى الصَّبِيُّ

bak-kaa al-sabiy-yu

Which means “[he] made the boy cry”.

Later you will come to realise that not only do diacritics change the meaning of things, but so does the pronunciation of a letter.

As for Tajweed, just remember shaddah + meem or noon = ghunnah.

Resources Link:

Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Ghunnah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

-Diacritics [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 4]

Practicing diacritics exercises up to page 6

[Gateway To Arabic: pages 21 – 24]

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: first half page 10]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

… ارخيلا بتنرخا

 

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule four December 7, 2010

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merging colours

Merging things together can be heaps of fun. I tend to enjoy combining colours together to create new, fascinating ones. The fourth rule for Al-Noon Al-Saakinah is all about merging/combining. This rule is said to be one of the most complicated rules. But there is nothing to fret about because practice makes perfect, insha Allah.

Rule four: Al-Idghaam — Al-Idkhaal (To merge with)

There are two types of Idghaam. and from these two, a couple more branch out. Take a look at the diagram below:

idghaam typesSo what does all this mean?

Let’s start with what ghunnah means.

Ghunnah: A ghunnah is the sound made entirely by the nose [this is in regards to the sounds coming from the mouth].

An Idghaam bi ghunnah occurs with any Tanween or Noon Saakinah if it is followed by any of these letters:

ي       ن       م       و

waw meem noon yaa

This completes the first level of the diagram when following the rightmost arrow.

Merging without ghunnah, i.e. Idghaam bila ghunnah occurs when the letters

ل    ر

raa   laam

follow a Noon Saakinah or Tanween. Now the leftmost arrow of the first level of the diagram is complete. [i.e. the entire first level is now complete].

With these two letters, raa and laam, their idghaam is called: idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel, or in English, merging without ghunnah fully.

Here the “nn” sound from the Tanween or Noon Saakinah is completely eliminated and the laam or raa are said straight away without any emphasis on their sounds. Hence why the “fully” is added onto the end – i.e. noting that the “nn” sound is “fully” wiped out.

Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel / merging without ghunnah fully:

merging without ghunnah
waylun likulli humazatin lumazah

The two “n” I have in red are completely eliminated and so the verse is read as,

waylulikulli humazatilumaza

Notice the two green letters are now the place where the two words are connected without the Tanween. Some students [and I know quite a few] have trouble in the beginning trying to connect two words without the “nn” sound in between. They end up “leaning on” the laam or raa and saying them as though there is a shaddah[1] on these two letters. However there isn’t.

But here you may protest that in fact there is. Look at the example above. There is a shaddah on the laam in both cases for the words likulli and lumazah. This shaddah is not there for shaddah purposes. It has been put there as a notice to the reader that the Tanween (or Noon Saakinah) is not to be pronounced at all, not even through the nasal passage.

Below is a second example using a Noon Saakinah.

merging noon

min rabbi read as, mir-rabbi

While I still have your attention [I hope], and avoiding any confusion possible, insha Allah, I’ll continue on with the rightmost arrow, merging with ghunnah.

Recall that a ghunnah is a sound made entirely by the nose [nasalisation], somewhere between a hum and a moan. Like an aeroplane engine, probably. The merging with ghunnah letters as above have two categories. “Full” and “lesser”. Full idghaam means that this aeroplane humming comes through sounding a lot stronger than it would when the lesser one is made. The letters,

ن      م

meem noon

coincide with a full idgham bi ghunnah, where as the remaining letters,

ي       و

waw yaa

are to be said with a “lesser idgham bi ghunnah“. Idgham bi ghunnah, whether fuller or lesser is sounded for two counts, similar to the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of a full idghaam bi ghunnah:

____________

rasoolun min                                min marqadinaa

min maarijen min naaren

(3 occurrences of a fuller idghaam bi ghunnah)

note: min maarij   –   maarijen min   –   min naar


Examples of lesser idghaam bi ghunnah:

dalaalatun walaakinni

min yawmihem

 

Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel:

bideenaaren la

fawaylun lillatheena

Notice here the shaddah on the first laam is to note the ruling of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel. The second shaddah however is there for shaddah purposes. You are to “double” the sound of the second laam so it is said as I’ve written above, lil-latheena.

 

Idghaam is something I find very beautiful. It’s adds a tremendous tone to recitation and I think it, alongside the rule regarding noon and meem mushadadah, adds a very serene and tranquil sensation for the both listener and reader.

What’s that rule I just mentioned? Keep an eye out for new posts.

 

Resources Link:

Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

 

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haar –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab


[1]Shaddah: is to double the sound of a letter so that it is stressed. Such a letter is said to be mushaddad.


 

Tajweed: The Foundations December 2, 2010

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Tajweed Foundation

Tajweed Foundation

Tajweed is to give every letter it’s right and pronounce it from the correct place in the  mouth/nose/throat. The word itself means “to make better”

In Tajweed there is “fard kifaayah[1], where not all people must know a certain rule. Example of this in Islam is the prayer of the dead. “Fard ayn[2] is compulsory for all Muslims to do/learn, i.e. reading with Tajweed .

There are three types of reading:

1- Al-tahqeeq: where Quran is read very slowly with Tajweed
2 – Al-tadweer: where Quran is read at a medium pace with Tajweed
3 – Al-hadr: where Quran is read quickly with Tajweed

 

Resources Link:

Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: pages 1 – 3 and midway of page 4


[1] – Sufficiency duty or fard al-kifaya (الواجب الكفائي‎) is a duty which is imposed on the whole community of believers (ummah). The classic example for it is jihad: the individual is not required to perform it as long as a sufficient number of community members fulfil it.
[2] – Individual duty or fard al-ayn (الواجب العين) relates to tasks every Muslim is required to perform, such as daily prayer (salah), hijab, or the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (hajj).