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Al-Idghaam February 24, 2013

Merging two similar things is something we do all the time. We do this when we categorise objects with similar characteristics (using the dominant characteristic as the go-to label) because it’s easier for us in the end to pull out what we need.  Similarly, it’s easier for the tongue to merge two letters, and sound out the one with the more dominant characteristic. This ruling is called idghaam.

Merged Fruit

 

Idghaam Al-‘aam: the common/general idghaam is to sound the first of two letters as the second – sounding the two letters as one letter with a shaddah on it. This common idghaam has two branches: kabeer (large) and sagheer (small).

Al-Idghaam Al-kabeer: occurs when a  voweled letter precedes another voweled letter such that they become one letter with a shaddah on it.

Al-Idghaam Al-sagheer: occurs when a saakin letter precedes a voweled letter, such that they become one letter with a shaddah on it. Al-idghaam al-sagheer has three categories, these are

Mutamaathil – Mutajaanis – Mutaqaarib

We will study these in greater detail. First let’s look at Al-idghaam al-kabeer.

Al-idghaam al-kabeer occurs only when two of the same letters meet within a word – both letters are voweled, and therefore must be said as one letter with a shaddah on it.

Examples of this idghaam are as follows:

ta'mannaa

la ta’mannaa – originally ( تأمنُنَا )

ma makannee

ma makannee – originally ( مكنَنِي )

ta'muroonnee

ta’muroonnee – originally ( تأمرونَنِي )

Let’s note the first example also involves a tajweed rule, Ishmaam. I haven’t covered this yet, and will do soon, insha Allah. What we should focus on now though, is merging the two letters, sounding a shaddah, and by principle, a ghunnah.

Al-idghaam al-sagheer happens when a voweled letter follows a saakin letter. This idghaam is under three categories. These categories define when an idghaam sagheer occurs. They are:

Mutamaathil: when the letters being merged come from the same makhraj (point of articulation), and have the same sifah (characteristic). Examples:

ithaa tala'at tazaawaru

Ithaa tala‘at tazaawaru

ith-thahaba

Ith-thahaba

ithab-bikitaabee

Ith-hab bikitaabee

wa qad dakhalu

Wa qad dakhaloo
yudrikkum

Yudrikkum

qul laa

Qul laa

falaa yusrif fil qatl

Falaa yusrif fil-qatl

jaa'atkum maw'ithatun

Jaa’akum maw’ithatunlan-nasbiraLan nasbira

'afaw-wa-qaalu

‘Afaw wa qaaloo

Note: the last example happens on a consonant waaw. If the first word ends in a waaw or yaa’ maddeeyah, then this ruling does not apply, and a shaddah must not be sounded on the second waaw/yaa.

Mutaqaarib: when the letters being merged come from two makhaarij – close in proximity, and have different (but similar) sifaat. Examples:

The letter qaaf and kaaf

nakhlukkumread: nakhlukkum

The letter laam and raa’

wa qul rabbiread: wa qurrabbi

The letter noon with the letters waaw, yaa’, raa’, meem, laam ( و يرمل from the noon saakinah ruling)

min yawmihimmiyyawmihim

Mutajaanis: when the letters being merged come from the same makhraj, but have different sifaat. This occurs for the nat‘eeyah, lathaweeyah and shafaweeyah letters.

The nat‘eeyah letters:

– merging happens to the taa’ ت and taa’ ط and vice versa

waddat taa'ifatunwaddat taa’ifatun (read: ودطّائفة )

farrattumfarrattum (read: فرطتم )

– merging happens to the taa’ ت and daal د and vice versa

athqalat da'awaaathqalad-da’awaa (read: أثقلدَّعَوَا )

qad tabayyana

qat-tabayyana (read: قتَّبَيَّنَ )

Note, the first example has a little ط in it. This is because the tongue should be pushed up completely against the hard palate as though you are going to pronounce the taa’ – however it should not be sounded.

The lathaweeyah letters:

– merging happens to the thaa’ ث and thaal ذ

yalhath thaalika

yalhath-thaalika (read: يلهذّلك )

– merging happens to the thaal ذ and thaa’ ظ

ith thalamooIth-thalamoo (read: إظَّلموا )

The shafaweeyah letters:

– merging happens to the baa’ ب and meem م

irkab ma'anaa

Irkamma‘anaa (read: اركمَّعنا )

This wraps it up for the idghaam ruling. Keep in mind that there is idghaam for the noon and meem saakinah rules. And idghaam kaamel and naaqis for the noon saakinah rulings in particular.

Resources link:

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

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Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: rule one December 12, 2010

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

As with Al-Noon Al-Saakinah, Al-meem Al-saakinah has it’s own Tajweed rules.

The fourth rule for Al-Noon Al-Saakinah described what idghaam is. Because meem is a letter pronounced using the lips[1] the rule differs a bit.

Rule one: Idghaam Shafawee (Lip-based Merging or Merging with the use of lips).

For any meem saakinah, when a second meem follows it, Idghaam Shafawee is sounded for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”. The condition here is that the latter meem has a fat-ha, dammah or kasra on it. Note a shaddah on the second meem is drawn as a notice of this rule [i.e. it is not there for shaddah purposes].

Examples of Idghaam Shafawee are as follow:

___ __

lahum maa ____quloobihim maradun

__ _____

faghashiyahum mina ______ am man

Simple as that. Practice makes perfect.

Resources Link:

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: second half page 10]

Related Pages: Al-Meem Al-Saakinah: ith-haar shafaweeAl-Meem Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa shafawee


[1] -View the document ‘Maakharij Al -Huroof’ or ‘Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More’ pages 3 and 4 titled Origin of Letters

 

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule four December 7, 2010

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

merging colours

Merging things together can be heaps of fun. I tend to enjoy combining colours together to create new, fascinating ones. The fourth rule for Al-Noon Al-Saakinah is all about merging/combining. This rule is said to be one of the most complicated rules. But there is nothing to fret about because practice makes perfect, insha Allah.

Rule four: Al-Idghaam — Al-Idkhaal (To merge with)

There are two types of Idghaam. and from these two, a couple more branch out. Take a look at the diagram below:

idghaam typesSo what does all this mean?

Let’s start with what ghunnah means.

Ghunnah: A ghunnah is the sound made entirely by the nose [this is in regards to the sounds coming from the mouth].

An Idghaam bi ghunnah occurs with any Tanween or Noon Saakinah if it is followed by any of these letters:

ي       ن       م       و

waw meem noon yaa

This completes the first level of the diagram when following the rightmost arrow.

Merging without ghunnah, i.e. Idghaam bila ghunnah occurs when the letters

ل    ر

raa   laam

follow a Noon Saakinah or Tanween. Now the leftmost arrow of the first level of the diagram is complete. [i.e. the entire first level is now complete].

With these two letters, raa and laam, their idghaam is called: idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel, or in English, merging without ghunnah fully.

Here the “nn” sound from the Tanween or Noon Saakinah is completely eliminated and the laam or raa are said straight away without any emphasis on their sounds. Hence why the “fully” is added onto the end – i.e. noting that the “nn” sound is “fully” wiped out.

Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel / merging without ghunnah fully:

merging without ghunnah
waylun likulli humazatin lumazah

The two “n” I have in red are completely eliminated and so the verse is read as,

waylulikulli humazatilumaza

Notice the two green letters are now the place where the two words are connected without the Tanween. Some students [and I know quite a few] have trouble in the beginning trying to connect two words without the “nn” sound in between. They end up “leaning on” the laam or raa and saying them as though there is a shaddah[1] on these two letters. However there isn’t.

But here you may protest that in fact there is. Look at the example above. There is a shaddah on the laam in both cases for the words likulli and lumazah. This shaddah is not there for shaddah purposes. It has been put there as a notice to the reader that the Tanween (or Noon Saakinah) is not to be pronounced at all, not even through the nasal passage.

Below is a second example using a Noon Saakinah.

merging noon

min rabbi read as, mir-rabbi

While I still have your attention [I hope], and avoiding any confusion possible, insha Allah, I’ll continue on with the rightmost arrow, merging with ghunnah.

Recall that a ghunnah is a sound made entirely by the nose [nasalisation], somewhere between a hum and a moan. Like an aeroplane engine, probably. The merging with ghunnah letters as above have two categories. “Full” and “lesser”. Full idghaam means that this aeroplane humming comes through sounding a lot stronger than it would when the lesser one is made. The letters,

ن      م

meem noon

coincide with a full idgham bi ghunnah, where as the remaining letters,

ي       و

waw yaa

are to be said with a “lesser idgham bi ghunnah“. Idgham bi ghunnah, whether fuller or lesser is sounded for two counts, similar to the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of a full idghaam bi ghunnah:

____________

rasoolun min                                min marqadinaa

min maarijen min naaren

(3 occurrences of a fuller idghaam bi ghunnah)

note: min maarij   –   maarijen min   –   min naar


Examples of lesser idghaam bi ghunnah:

dalaalatun walaakinni

min yawmihem

 

Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel:

bideenaaren la

fawaylun lillatheena

Notice here the shaddah on the first laam is to note the ruling of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel. The second shaddah however is there for shaddah purposes. You are to “double” the sound of the second laam so it is said as I’ve written above, lil-latheena.

 

Idghaam is something I find very beautiful. It’s adds a tremendous tone to recitation and I think it, alongside the rule regarding noon and meem mushadadah, adds a very serene and tranquil sensation for the both listener and reader.

What’s that rule I just mentioned? Keep an eye out for new posts.

 

Resources Link:

Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

 

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haar –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab


[1]Shaddah: is to double the sound of a letter so that it is stressed. Such a letter is said to be mushaddad.