Al-Laam Al-Qamareeyah

A bright full moon always adds a beautiful hint of shine to the sky. It casts down a gorgeous reflection of white, streaking shadows across the ground. It’s a true blessing when everything else is dark, and it makes your path that much more clearer — just as it makes this laam qamareeyah pronounced clearly…


Al-Laam Al-Qamareeyah: or “the Moon Laam” is the laam saakinah (sukoon on the laam) which must be pronounced clearly. This laam occurs at the beginning of the word (Al- ..) and occurs in nouns.

Pronouncing it clearly happens with the remaining 14 letters that aren’t covered in the laam shamseeyah.

These letters for laam qamareeyah can be remembered by noting the phrase:

إبغ حجك و خف عقيمه

To reiterate, these letters are:

ا   ب   ج   ح   خ   ع   غ   ف   ق   ك   م   و   ه   ي

yaa – haa – waaw – meem – kaaf – qaaf – faa – ghayn – ‘ayn – khaa – haa – jeem – baa – alif

You will notice in Quranic scripture a little haa looking shape (حـ) above the laam. This is just to act as a reminder for reciters: to make sure that you remember to say Al-… and not merge the laam into the next letter.

Examples of al-laam al-qamareeyah:





Note: just because there is a letter before, this does not change the ruling for the laam.

Here’s a challenge: can you guess why none of the “Al-” nouns have tanween on the end?

Don’t cheat. But if you can’t figure it out, read the answer on page 61 of Gateway To Arabic.

Resources Link:

– Tajweed Rule “the moon letters” [Gateway To Arabic: page 61]

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.


Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad

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Have you ever wondered why many people have opted to take the escalator instead of stairs? Have we compensated health for convenience? Will you sound this compensated madd?

Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad: compensated prolongation, occurs only at the end of a word that has tanween fat-h.

It’s conditions are as follow:

1. A word ends with tanween fat-h (  اً  ) which has caused the word to end with the letter alif (  ا  )

2. You will stop after this word (e.g. you have reached the end of an ayah)

3. You must prolong the alif for two counts without pronouncing the tanween fat-h

4. This madd is void if you are not stopping after the word, i.e. you sound the tanween fat-h and continue reading

Let’s take a look at some examples and view the above conditions practically.

Examples of madd ‘iwad:

madd iwad pic


madd iwad 2 pic‘athaaban aleemaa

madd iwad 3 picithan abadaa

‘aleeman khabeeraa

Here you can see how the madd becomes void when you are continuing onto the next word, and how it is sounded when you are stopping. Of course, what ever you do, keep in mind that this madd is only for tanween fat-h. You definitely do not say a madd when it is tanween damm or kasr.

Resources link:

‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, fourth madd listed

-‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-MutasilAl-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil Al-Madd Al-
– Al-Madd Al-LeenAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule four

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

merging colours

Merging things together can be heaps of fun. I tend to enjoy combining colours together to create new, fascinating ones. The fourth rule for Al-Noon Al-Saakinah is all about merging/combining. This rule is said to be one of the most complicated rules. But there is nothing to fret about because practice makes perfect, insha Allah.

Rule four: Al-Idghaam — Al-Idkhaal (To merge with)

There are two types of Idghaam. and from these two, a couple more branch out. Take a look at the diagram below:

idghaam typesSo what does all this mean?

Let’s start with what ghunnah means.

Ghunnah: A ghunnah is the sound made entirely by the nose [this is in regards to the sounds coming from the mouth].

An Idghaam bi ghunnah occurs with any Tanween or Noon Saakinah if it is followed by any of these letters:

ي       ن       م       و

waw meem noon yaa

This completes the first level of the diagram when following the rightmost arrow.

Merging without ghunnah, i.e. Idghaam bila ghunnah occurs when the letters

ل    ر

raa   laam

follow a Noon Saakinah or Tanween. Now the leftmost arrow of the first level of the diagram is complete. [i.e. the entire first level is now complete].

With these two letters, raa and laam, their idghaam is called: idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel, or in English, merging without ghunnah fully.

Here the “nn” sound from the Tanween or Noon Saakinah is completely eliminated and the laam or raa are said straight away without any emphasis on their sounds. Hence why the “fully” is added onto the end – i.e. noting that the “nn” sound is “fully” wiped out.

Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel / merging without ghunnah fully:

merging without ghunnah
waylun likulli humazatin lumazah

The two “n” I have in red are completely eliminated and so the verse is read as,

waylulikulli humazatilumaza

Notice the two green letters are now the place where the two words are connected without the Tanween. Some students [and I know quite a few] have trouble in the beginning trying to connect two words without the “nn” sound in between. They end up “leaning on” the laam or raa and saying them as though there is a shaddah[1] on these two letters. However there isn’t.

But here you may protest that in fact there is. Look at the example above. There is a shaddah on the laam in both cases for the words likulli and lumazah. This shaddah is not there for shaddah purposes. It has been put there as a notice to the reader that the Tanween (or Noon Saakinah) is not to be pronounced at all, not even through the nasal passage.

Below is a second example using a Noon Saakinah.

merging noon

min rabbi read as, mir-rabbi

While I still have your attention [I hope], and avoiding any confusion possible, insha Allah, I’ll continue on with the rightmost arrow, merging with ghunnah.

Recall that a ghunnah is a sound made entirely by the nose [nasalisation], somewhere between a hum and a moan. Like an aeroplane engine, probably. The merging with ghunnah letters as above have two categories. “Full” and “lesser”. Full idghaam means that this aeroplane humming comes through sounding a lot stronger than it would when the lesser one is made. The letters,

ن      م

meem noon

coincide with a full idgham bi ghunnah, where as the remaining letters,

ي       و

waw yaa

are to be said with a “lesser idgham bi ghunnah“. Idgham bi ghunnah, whether fuller or lesser is sounded for two counts, similar to the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of a full idghaam bi ghunnah:


rasoolun min                                min marqadinaa

min maarijen min naaren

(3 occurrences of a fuller idghaam bi ghunnah)

note: min maarij   –   maarijen min   –   min naar

Examples of lesser idghaam bi ghunnah:

dalaalatun walaakinni

min yawmihem


Examples of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel:

bideenaaren la

fawaylun lillatheena

Notice here the shaddah on the first laam is to note the ruling of idghaam bila ghunnah kaamel. The second shaddah however is there for shaddah purposes. You are to “double” the sound of the second laam so it is said as I’ve written above, lil-latheena.


Idghaam is something I find very beautiful. It’s adds a tremendous tone to recitation and I think it, alongside the rule regarding noon and meem mushadadah, adds a very serene and tranquil sensation for the both listener and reader.

What’s that rule I just mentioned? Keep an eye out for new posts.


Resources Link:

Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Idghaam [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 12]

Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]


Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haar –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab

[1]Shaddah: is to double the sound of a letter so that it is stressed. Such a letter is said to be mushaddad.

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule three

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Allahuma ya muqaliba al-quloob thabit qalbi ‘ala deenika

اللهم يا مُقلِّبَ القُلوب … ثبتْ قَلبي على دينكَ

Rule Three: Iqlaab — Tahweel Al-shay’ ‘an wajh (Flipping).

After every Noon Saakinah or Tanween, if the letter baa (ب) follows, the sound must be flipped [i.e. changed] to the sound of the letter meem (م). This is represented by a little meem on top of the letter itself as pictured below:

The lips should not be entirely pressed together, to allow for the meem to come through the nasal passage as well. The mouth should be prepared to say the baa after sounding through the meem. So the above, min b‘ad is sounds like mimm b‘ad when read. What ever you do, take this piece of advice and do not get mixed up between the full shaped meem (م) drawn above letters to indicate iqlaab, and the cut meem (مـ) to indicated a compulsory stop. Refer to the resources link below. Iqlaab must be sounded for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of the third rule are as follow:

example one: min b‘ad – منْ بَعْدِ

example two: layunbathanna – لَيُنْبِذَنَّ

example three: samee‘an baseeran – سَمِيعَاً بَصِيراً

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gateway to Arabic, page 48]

– Rules of stopping [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 15]

Tanween [Gateway to Arabic: page 40]

[Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: pages 11 – 14]

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haar –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ikhfaa –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: idghaam

More about the Arabic letters can be found here: scroll down to the “ABJAD TABLE” and select a letter.

اللهم يا مُقلِّبَ القلوب ثبتْ قلبي على دينك

Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule two

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The following is rule two of four for the Noon Al-Saakinah/Tanween.

We all know the children’s game, hide and seek. Here, the Noon Al-Saakinah must be hidden [i.e. not pronounced clearly]. Read on.

Hide And Seek

Rule Two: Ikhfaa — Al-sitr (where the Noon/Tanween is not pronounced clearly, i.e. is hidden).

The first rule listed six letters that follow the noon al-saakinah. In that case, it must be pronounced clearly. Of the remaining letters in the Arabic alphabet, the second rule, ikhfaa applies.

The letters which are covered in rules three and four, are the exception to this rule.

These letters are:

ب    و    م    ن    ي    ر    ل

laam    raa    yaa   noon    meem    waa    baa

When one of the remaining letters follows a noon saakinah or tanween, ikhfaa must be done. This is when the noon saakinah or tanween is hidden in the nose. Here, the mouth is to be shaped in a manner such that it is “prepared” for the next letter. For example, if the next letter is a taa with a dhammah then the mouth is prepared to say this by changing it into a small “o” shape, and the tongue positions itself in the right place within the mouth[2]. This can occur across two words or be contained in one.

Ikhfaa must be sounded for two counts, i.e. the time it takes to say the words, “one – two”.

Examples of the second rule are as follow:

example one: min qabl –   منْ قبلِ

example two: kitaabun kareem –   كِتابٌ كريم

example three: antum –   أنْتم

It is not necessary that you learn all these letters. It is however advised that you learn the 6 ith-haar, and 7 exception, letters and so when reading, just do a quick check to see if the letter is not one of the 6 ith-haar letters, or the exception letters above, then do ikhfaa. This takes a while to get used to, and soon you’ll forget you even have to do a check because you internalise it.

Besides, it’d be almost the impossible to try and bring out an “nn” sound from your nasal passage when needing to shape your mouth for a “h” sound for haa, or an “a” sound for alif.

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gateway to Arabic, page 48]

– Makhaarij Al-Huroof

Related Pages: Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: ith-haarAl-Noon Al-Saakinah: idghaam –  Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: iqlaab

[1] – More about the Arabic letters can be found here: scroll down to the “ABJAD TABLE” and select a letter.
[2] – Refer to the document Makhaarij Al-Huroof under the resources page.