If you tend to find yourself doing near-opposite things every other moment, or completely lost from time to time, then get in touch with Raa’. In one word it’s mufakham, and another it’s muraqqaq.. And in some, it just can’t make up it’s mind on what to do.
This post is technically meant to be titled “levels of tafkeem: part 3”. But with the letter raa’, I decided to drop this title, because there’re really only 2 options: tafkheem or tarqeeq – there’s no in between (in terms of strength). Let’s begin.
The Tafkheem and Tarqeeq of Raa’
First, the letter raa’ exists in two cases: mutatarref and ghayr mutatarref.
The raa’ al-mutatarref: is the raa’ that exists at the end of a word.
The raa’ ghayr mutatarref: is the raa’ that exists in the middle, or beginning of a word.
Let’s look at the rulings for the raa’ ghayr mutatarref.
The Tafkheem of Raa’ Ghayr Mutatarref
There are 7 cases which you must pronounce the raa’ with tafkheem.
1. If the raa’ has a fat-ha on it, such as in the examples:
2. If the raa’ has a dammah on it, such as in the examples:
3. If the raa’ has a sukoon on it, but follows a fat-ha, such as in the examples:
4. If the raa’ has a sukoon on it, but follows a dammah, such as in the examples:
5. If the raa’ has a sukoon on it, following a kasrah, but preceding an isti‘laa’ letter which has a fat-ha or dammah on it. This occurs 5 times in the Quran, as follows:
6. If the raa’ has a sukoon on it, and follows “kasr ‘aarid“, such as in the examples:
Here note, a “kasr ‘aarid” is the kasrah that is pronounced to start a word with a hamzatul wasl, and is dropped to connect a preceding word.
7. If the raa’ has a sukoon on it, and follows a “kasr mufassal“, as in the examples:
Here note, a “kasr mufassal” is the kasrah produced by connecting the preceding word with the saakin raa’ (dropping the hamzatul wasl).
The Tareeq of Raa’ Ghayr Mutatarref
There are 2 cases which you must pronounce the raa’ ghayr mutaterref with taqeeq.
1. If the raa’ has a kasrah underneath it, such as in the examples:
2. If the raa’ has a sukoon on it, and follows kasr asli (a letter, not hamzatul wasl, with a kasrah underneath it).
wa jaa’a fir‘awnu
The Exception for Raa’ Ghayr Mutatarref
One instance which the raa’ ghayr mutaterref can be mufakham or muraqqaq (whatever is easier for the reader) is in the word:
from surat Al-Shu‘araa’, verse 63. This happens when the raa’ follows a kasr asli, and precedes a isti‘laa’ letter which has kasr underneath it. It is up to the reader to do tafkheem or tarqeeq, whether stopping after the word, or continuing recitation.
The Tafkheem of the Raa’ Al-Mutatarref
There are 4 cases which you must pronounce the raa’ with tafkheem. Here I say, “saakin raa’” because it is assumed you are stopping on the word.
1. If the saakin raa’ follows a fat-ha, such as in the examples:
2. If the saakin raa’ follows an alif, such as in the example:
3. If the saakin raa’ follows a dammah, such as in the example:
4. If the saakin raa’ follows a waaw madeeyah, such as in the example:
The Tareeq of Raa’ Al-Mutatarref
There are 2 cases which you must pronounce the raa’ al-mutaterref with taqeeq.
1. If the saakin raa’ follows a yaa’ madeeyah, such as in the examples:
2. If the saakin raa’ follows kasr asli (a letter, not hamzatul wasl, with a kasrah underneath it). Examples:
Here note, if the letter before the raa’ has a sukoon on it, the letter before that is considered.
Exceptions for Raa’ Al-Mutatarref
1. When the letter raa’ follows an isti‘laa’ letter with a sukoon on it, which follows a kasrah, the reciter has the choice to pronounce the saakin raa’ with tafkheem or tarqeeq. Take special note, this is only the case when stopping on the word. This happens in two instances in the Quran. The words are:
2. When the letter yaa’ from the original make up of the word is eliminated (for grammatical purposes), the saakin raa’ may be said with tafkheem or tarqeeq. This happens in the words:
where the original word is (yusuree: in arabic).
For the same reason, saying the raa’ with tafkheem or tarqeeq is allowed for the word nuthur when it is preceded by a waaw, occuring six times in surat Al-Qamar:
The original make up of this word is (nuthuree: nuthuree in arabic).
To conclude today’s post, I’ll reiterate an important note: If you are continuing recitation, then the raa’ al-mutatarref is said with tafkheem if it has a fat-ha or dammah on it, and is said with tarqeeq if it has a kasrah underneath it.
Now head over to surat Al-Fajr and Al-Qamr to practice. Connect verses, and stop at others to see what rulings you come across! 🙂 And remember, avoid the tikraar (repetition) of the letter raa’ 🙂
– Sifaatul Aaridah – Tafkheem
5 thoughts on “Raa’: tafkheem & tarqeeq”
Is it tikraar or takreer? that’s a major issue when people recite, the rolling of the tongue.
I think saying it tikraar or takreer may come down down to Arabic grammar. The same way the word Abu (meaning “the father of”) can be said Abaa in some situations. Wallahu a‘lam. If you become better enlightened do share the ray of knowledge 🙂
I asked about this and was told it’s incorrect to say takreer, and the correct word is tikraar. There is a slight difference in meaning (contextually) which makes ‘takreer‘ an incorrect term when discussing this topic.
Funny, I was just about to comment. I just asked about it too last night, and he said that they have different meanings, but they are applied to the same phenomena. He used tikraar.