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Hamzatul Wasl: exceptions we take for granted October 6, 2011

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I’ve put together a few extra notes about hamzatul wasl that are worth remembering and noting. Many take these notes for granted, others don’t even know them. Just before I begin, I want to point out that some of these rules are heavily based on the Arabic grammar (which I won’t cover), or they relate to another tajweed rule I have not yet posted. Ultimately, there are two categories for this post. They will be as follows…

1. The Questioning Hamzah + Hamzatul Wasl

Definition of some words:

questioning hamzah: is that hamzah which turns a statement into a question, in the form of “a”, i.e. hamzah (  ء  )

participle: refers to that word which starts off with a hamzatul wasl. The type of hamzatul wasl is the definite article, in Arabic, the definite article is called the laam tareef, which is read and written as “Al-” before a word. It translates to “the” in English.

The rule:

If the questioning hamzah enters a word that starts with a hamzatul wasl of type participle, the hamzatul wasl is dropped and swapped for an alif. This does not change whether the laam in the original “Al-” is merged or pronounced based on whether it’s a laam shamseeyah or qamareeyah. Note, that when this occurs, it is called Al-Madd Al-Farq.

So, examples:

The original Arabic word is,

Ath-thakarayni

With the questioning hamzah, it is now pronounced as,

Aaa-thakarayni

A couple more examples:

Al-Aana (original Arabic word)

Aaal-aana (with questioning hamzah)

Allahu (original word)

Aaallahu (with questioning hamzah)

Just a side note, this questioning hamzah not only affects the hamzatul wasl, but it also acts upon the same concept of the madd badal tajweed rule. Note the first and last examples are also madd al-laazim kalimee muthaqqal, whereas the 2nd example is the madd al-laazim kalimee mukhaffaf.

2. The Preceding Sukoon

When a hamzatul wasl is preceded by a sukoon, a reciter has three options, based on the circumstance.

Circumstance 1: If the hamzatul wasl is preceded by the word min (مِنْ), then the silent noon is voweled with a fat-ha. We take this rule for granted, because the Quranic scripture does this for us already, we see it all the time and probably don’t even know about it.

A couple of examples,

Minal-jinnati

Faminallahi

Circumstance 2: If the hamzatul wasl is preceded by the pluralising silent waaw that is preceded by a fat-ha, or if the hamzatul wasl is preceded by the pluralising silent meem, then the meem/waaw are voweled with a dammah. As with above, the Quranic scripture does this for us. An example of each:

Ilaykumul-eemaana

Ishtarawud-dalalata

Circumstance 3: In all other cases, not covered in the first two circumstances, any word that ends with any form of sukoon that precedes a word starting with a hamzatul wasl of any form, must have the sukoon voweled with a kasra.

Some cases are covered by Quranic scripture. The sukoon is voweled for us ready to read. Examples of this are,

Wa Qaalati-mra’atu

Ani-drib

Cases not covered by the Quranic scripture are that which contain tanween in the preceding word. This can happen across two ayaat, or within one ayah. All the examples provided happen across two ayaat, however…

Examples:

Stopping: Shadeed. Al-latheena

Continuing: Shadeedinil-latheena

Stopping: Mahthooraa. Unthur

Continuing: Mahthooran-i-nthur

Stopping: Ahad. Allahu

Continuing: Ahadunillahu

A take-home message from this post would be to learn the two categories, and their rulings. Just so that you’re in the know. If you want to keep it simple for yourself, then the least you should do is remember the 2nd category’s 3rd circumstance about tanween.

Resources Link:

– Document “Hamzatul Wasl”

– The Definite Article “Al-” [Gateway To Arabic Book 2: page 16]

– Sukoon [Gateway To Arabic: page 48]

– Tanween [Gatway To Arabic: pages 40-43]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Also note, there’s a main post that discusses hamzatul wasl.

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Al-Madd Al-Tamkeen July 12, 2011

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Have you ever come across something so simple that you’ve thought it’s too insignificant to consider… or take note of?

Many tajweed books nowadays have omitted this madd because of it’s necessity that comes naturally when reciting. Yet, I thought I should post it here so that you can all be more aware that such a rule exists.

Al-Madd Al-Tamkeen [1]: occurs when a yaa mushaddadah with a kasr is followed by a yaa saakinah. This occurs only within a word, as words cannot start with a sukoon.

To be more specific: within a word, you notice a yaa that has a shaddah, and a kasra, this generally looks like this:

ــيِّــ

then you notice that after this yaa is another one, which has sukoon on it. Naturally as you pronounce this word, you are sounding this rule, al-madd al-tamkeen.

Examples of where this occurs in the Quran are as follow:

 

 

wa ithaa huyyeetum

wa khaatama al-nabiyyeen

wal-ummiyyeen

As you may have noticed, sometimes it is written as two yaa-s, or sometimes only one yaa is written and the “mini” symbol for the second yaa (the yaa saakinah) is drawn.

That’s it for al-madd al-tamkeen! Can you guess why it’s classed as a madd?

Look up the shaddah and sukoon on the resources page by following the link below.

Resources Link:

– Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.



[1] Al-Madd Al-Tamkeen: المد التمكين

 

 

Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee May 25, 2011

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This post is a continuation from the previous: Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee

If you’ve made it to this point… then know that you’re just 6 counts away from finishing the foundational tajweed rules! 🙂 One last omph and you can badge up a .:mujawwid/ah:. tag and stick it on your galaabeeyah 🙂

Al-Madd Al-Laazim Al-Harfee: letter based necessary prolongation is the second branch of al-madd al-laazim. This posts discusses the difference between al-madd al-laazim harfee mukhfaffaf and harfee muthaqal as outlined in the diagram.

Both types of madd laazim harfee only apply to those chapters in the Quran that start with letters. Some of these surahs include Surat Al-Baqarah, Surat Maryam, and Surat Qaaf. Each surah begins with letters that have a special case, all of which the al-madd al-laazim tajweed rule covers.

First it should be noted that there are 3 exceptions.

The first of which is the letter alif ( ا ). This letter is not prolonged, rather it is said plainly: “alif”.

Next, the letters,

ح      ي      ط      هـ      ر

raa,      haa,      taa,      yaa,      haa,

are only prolonged for 2 counts. You can remember these letters by remembering the phrase

حي طهر

hayy tuhr

Note: these letters are not said as they are in the alphabet. Meaning, you do not say yaa’ ( ياء ) rather, only yaa ( يا ) is said. This applies for all 5 letters.

The last exception is the letter ‘ayn (  ع ). This letter, as agreed upon by many scholars, can be prolonged for 2, 4, or 6 counts with 4 counts being the preferred length. I haven’t completely grasped the wisdom behind this – maybe you could input your knowledge of this exception. 🙂

Al-madd al-laazim hafree muthaqal (heavy letter based necessary prolongation) only occurs in one form (in the Quran).  It is where one of the letters (at the opening of a surah) is pronounced using three sounds, where the middle sound is a harf madd and the last sound is merged with the beginning sound of the next letter.

Let’s put this into context. The opening of Surat Al-Baqarah is alif – laam – meem.

One of these letters is pronounced with three sounds. It is laam.

ل

pronounced ( لام )

The first sound is “L” the second, a harf madd is “aa” (for alif) and the third is a meem, “mm”.

The next letter after laam is meem. The last sound of laam is “mm” and the beginning sound of meem is “mm”, hence the two “mm” sounds are merged during recitation, fulfilling the conditions of heavy letter based necessary prolongation.

The example:

alif – laaammeeem


Al-madd al-laazim hafree mukhaffaf (light letter based necessary prolongation) applies to those letters which do not merge. Each letter is prolonged for 6 counts, except where the above exceptions occur. The letters for this type of madd have 3 sounds. The middle is a harf madd, and the end is a saakin (hence why no merging occurs). An example is the letter qaaf.

ق

pronounced ( قافْ )

The first sound is a “Q”. The second a harf madd, “aa” for alif, the third is a saakin faa “ff”.

The letters that apply to this type of madd are,

ن      ق      ص      ع      س      ل      ك      م

meem,    kaaf,    laam,    seen,    ‘ayn,    saad,    qaaf,    noon

You can remember these letters by remembering the phrase,

نقصَ عَسَلُكُم

naqasa ‘asalukum

Examples of light letter based necessary prolongation are as follow [where cts = counts]:

haa meeem

2 cts  –  6 cts

kaaaf haa yaa ‘ayyn saaad

6 cts – 2 cts – 2 cts – 4 cts – 6 cts

‘ayyn seeen qaaaf

4 cts – 6 cts – 6 cts

nooon

6 cts

I’ve run out of breath. Hope everything makes sense.

If you need any clarifications, buzz through. 🙂

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, ninth madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-’Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee.

 

Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee May 15, 2011

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Do you enjoy really long walks? By the seaside or greenery? If you enjoy lengthy “anythings”, then you’ll definitely enjoy sounding this lengthy madd

Al-Madd Al-Laazim: necessary prolongation is the longest madd in tajweed. It is an umbrella term that branches into 2 types, which also branch into another 2 types, hence making a total of 6 types of necessary prolongation.

In this post I will discuss the right branch of al-madd al-laazim.

The right branch is kalimee (word based). This branches out again into two types, the first, muthaqal (heavy) and the second, mukhaffaf (light).

The rule for necessary prolongation is an occurrence of a grammatical (Arabic) rule. This rule says that no two saakin letters can follow one another (as this is very difficult on the tongue). To abide by this rule, a madd is slotted between the two saakins for 6 counts. Let’s now differentiate between light and heavy word based necessary prolongations.

Al-madd al-laazim al-kalimee al-muthaqal (heavy word based necessary prolongation) occurs in words that have a laazim saakin letter (where the letter has sukoon as part of the original make up of the word) after a harf madd. This sukoon is a result of a shaddah. As explained in a previous post, a shaddah causes a letter to be doubled where the first occurrence has a sukoon, and the second has a diacritic (more about shaddah here). Examples of al-madd al-laazim al-kalimee al-muthaqal are as follow:

Al-haaaqqah

Wal-saaaffaat

Al-daaalleen


Al-madd al-laazim al-kalimee al-mukhaffaf (light word based necessary prolongation) occurs in a word where a harf madd is followed by a laazim saakin letter whereby this sukoon is not merged with another letter. What does this mean? Just above I said that a shaddah causes the doubling of a letter, and hence, you are merging the first occurrence with the second to make it sound as 1 mushaddad letter. In this case, the letter with a saakin is not because of a shaddah, it is just a sukoon ( ْْْْo ْ) that is part of the original make up of the word. This type of necessary prolongation is sounded for 6 counts.

This type of madd only occurs twice in the Quran. The word is the same, even the surah is the same. Here it is:

Surat Yunus; Ayah 51:

Aaal-aana waqad kuntum bihi tastajiloona

Surat Yunus; Ayah 91:

Aaal-aana waqad ‘asayta

Considering this madd is so long, I’ve tried my best to keep this post short! 🙂

Hope everything makes sense, though. Let me know if it doesn’t.

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, ninth madd listed

– Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

– Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]

[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-’Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.

 

Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra May 11, 2011

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

The time it takes to repair and re-connect depends on how frequent you undergo a check up. Remember to revisit your heart’s checklist [emotion, faith, intentions, etc] occasionally in order to shorten the time it needs to wholeheartedly repent and re-connect with Allah. Keep in mind though, this isn’t the only connection you’ll need to take care of…..

Al-Madd Al-Silah[1]the connecting prolongation directly relates to the grammatical rule regarding the [possessive] pronoun that represents a third party of male gender. This [possessive] pronoun is simply the addition of the letter haa ( هــ ) at the end of a word. Therefore the referred third party is not part of the original make up of the word. At the end of a word, the letter haa looks like this ( ــه ).

The purpose of this madd is to lengthen the dammah in order for it to sound like a waaw (و) or to lengthen the kasra to sound like a yaa (ي). Explanation below.

Al-madd al-silah separates into two types: kubra (longer) and sughra (lesser).

Al-madd al-silah al-sughra (the lesser connecting prolongation) has the following conditions:

– the madd becomes void if the reciter stops at the end of the word, sounding a haa saakin, i.e. you must continue to the next word in order to sound this madd

– the haa on the end of the word must not be part of the original word

– the haa sits between two voweled letters (two letters that have a diacritic on them – neither of the two can have a sukoon)

– the haa is not followed by a hamzah ( ء or أ )

– the haa is voweled with either a dammah or a kasra, but NOT a fat-ha

the dammah or kasra is lengthened for 2 counts only


Al-madd al-silah al-kubra (the longer/larger connecting prolongation) has the following conditions:

– the madd becomes void if the reciter stops at the end of the word, sounding a haa saakin, i.e. you must continue to the next word in order to sound this madd

– the haa on the end of the word must not be part of the original word

– the haa sits between two voweled letters (two letters that have a diacritic on them – neither of the two can have a sukoon)

– the haa must be followed by a hamzah ( ء or أ )

– the haa is voweled with either a dammah or a kasra, but NOT a fat-ha

– the dammah or kasra is lengthened for 4 -5 counts

Conditions 1, 2, 3, and 5 are the same for kubra and sughra.

Examples of al-madd al-silah sughra:

lahuu maa fee

‘ibaadihii khabeeraa

kitaabahuu waraa’a

Examples of al-madd al-silah kubra:

maalahooo akhladahu

haathiheee eemaanan

 

wathaaqahuuu ahadun

So did you notice anything similar throughout the examples?

Yes, something other than the fact they are all madd silah… 🙂

Did you notice a little waaw and a little yaa after the [possessive] pronoun haa?

These little symbols make this madd too easy!

Notice on the madd silah kubra, all the little symbols have a madd above them).

Notice on the madd silah sughra, all the little symbols don’t have anything above or below!

As you read, just do a check. Does this haa have a little waaw or yaa after it? If so, then know it’s madd silah.

Does this little waaw or yaa have a madd squiggle on top? If so, then it’s a silah kubra, and stretch your yaa or waaw for 4 – 5 counts.

Simple! Right?

Before I close off this post, I want to note that there are some exemptions.

Two exemptions for silah sughra are as follow:

Here there is no madd although all the madd silah sughra conditions are met:

yardahu lakum

Here there is a madd although not all the madd silah sughra conditions are met (there is a harf saakin before the haa):

feehii muhaanan

Note 1: there is a third case where the possessive pronoun haa is feminine. In this case, madd silah is still done:

haathihii tathkiratun

Note 2: in case you wanted an example of when the haa is part of the original makeup of a word, here it is below:

fawaakihu wa hum mukramoona

All the conditions of madd silah are present (except the haa being unoriginal). It is because of this, that no madd silah is said.

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, eighth madd listed

-Short and long vowels  [Gatway To Arabic: pages 21-23; and 44-47]

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.



[1] Al-Madd Al-Silah Al-Kubra wa Al-Sughra: المد الصلة الكبرى و الصغرى


 

Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon April 17, 2011

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Have you ever been in those situations where an awkward silence is bound to happen? And when it does, it feels as though time stretches tenfold? Check out what happens to this stretchy prolongation when it hits a short silence (sukoon)!

https://i2.wp.com/blog.jalbum.net/blog/jalbum/resource/tips/interior_photography_m.jpg

Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon[1]: temporary prolongation occurs only at the end of an ayah (or when stopping after a word) that has a harf madd in it (ا    or     ي     or    و). There are certain conditions to this madd, these are as follow.

-The harf madd should be the 2nd last letter in the word

-The sukoon is found in stopping on [the sound of] the last letter of the word

-The harf madd must not have a fat-ha, dammah or kasra on it, e.g. ( يـَ   or   يـِ   or  يـُ )

-The preceding letter must have a suitable diacritic, i.e. dammah for waaw, fat-ha for alif, kasra for yaa

-The reciter must stop after the word being recited in order to sound this madd 4 or 6 counts

-The reciter can sound this madd for 2 counts whether they are stopping or not, but generally, 2 counts are sounded only when the reciter wishes to continue.

In the special case where a fat-ha precedes the harf madd yaa or waaw, it becomes known as al-madd al-leen, covered in this post. Al-madd al-leen has the same principles as al-madd al-‘aarid lil sukoon.

Examples of al-madd al-‘aarid lil sukoon:

yastawfooon

al-‘aalameeen

al-fasaaad

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, seventh madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-BadalAl-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.


[1] Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon: المد العارد للسكون

 

Al-Madd Al-Leen April 5, 2011


NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

Lean meat, lean on me, leniency…. Which “leen” is it? Let’s find out.

Al-Madd Al-Leen[1]: easy/eased prolongation only occurs when the reciter is stopping recitation after the word containing the madd, eg. for a breath, or at the end of an ayah, etc.

Let’s look at why this is so.

Al-madd al-leen occurs when a waaw saakinah ( وْ ) or a yaa saakinah ( يْ ) are preceded by a letter with the fat-h diacritic ( ــَـ).

To be able to sound al-madd al-leen, the yaa or waaw must be “stretched” and not simply read with a sukoon.

The length of elongation is a choice made by the reader of either:

2 counts; or

4 counts; or

6 counts.

But not all three.

Or two.

Or a mix.

Conditions of al-madd al-leen:

-it’s letters are waaw saakinah and yaa saakinah

-these letters must be preceded by a letter that has a fat-ha

-to sound this madd, the reciter must stop after saying the word containing the madd (otherwise the madd is void).

Contrary to Al-Madd Al-‘Iwad, this madd becomes void if you are not going to stop at the end of the word. An example of this is as follows:

Al-bayta mathaabatan

Here we can see that the conditions of al-madd al-leen are fulfiled in that the harf madd yaa has been preceded by a fat-ha. But we do not stretch this yaa for 2, 4, or 6 counts. Why? Because we continued onto the next word, mathaabatan.

It is situations like these that al-madd al-leen becomes completely void.

An example of when you do sound al-madd al-leen:

Ahla-l-bayti

Ahla-l-lbayyt

Visible after the word bayt, is the “jeem” character noting to the reciter it is preferable to stop reading. In this situation, we stretch the yaa in bayt for 2, 4 or 6 counts and stop for a breath. More examples:

Khawwf

Al-sayyf

A side note to readers who are more knowledgeable in Tajweed: al-madd al-leen relies on al-madd al-‘aarid lil sukoon. If you are going to stop after a word, you sound the ‘aarid madd. This is the same case with al-madd al-leen only it’s special case has been noted down as an entirely different tajweed rule.

Resources Link:

Sukoon [Gatway To Arabic: page 48]

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, sixth madd listed

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-BadalAl-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.


[1] Al-Madd Al-Leen: المد اللين